Radiographic Position

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    The factors that effect x-ray emission under the direct control of the radiographer are called the ____ factors.
    A. Quality
    B. Quantity
    C. Prime
    D. X-ray

    C. Prime
    

    The prime factors include each of the following except ____.
    A. Filtration
    B. mAs
    C. kVp
    D. Distance

    A. Filtration
    

    Milliampere-seconds directly affects each of the following except _____.
    A. Quantity
    B. Intensity
    C. Quality
    D. X-Ray Output

    C. Quality
    

    The factors that directly affect x-ray quantity are _____.
    A. mAs
    B. Distance
    C. Filtration
    D. All of the above

    D. All of the above
    

    The factors that directly affect x-ray quality are ____.
    A. kVp
    B. Filtration
    C. Both A and B
    D. Neither A nor B

    C. Both A and B
    

    The primary control of x-ray quantity is governed by _______.
    A. mAs
    B. kVp
    C. Distance
    D. Filtration

    A. mAs
    

    If the mAs of a radiograph is increased from 10 to 20, the resulting radiograph will exhibit _____.
    A. Decreased radiographic density
    B. Decreased radiographic contrast
    C. Increased radiographic density
    D. Increased radiographic contrast

    C. Increased radiographic density
    

    The relationship between mAs and exposure is ______.
    A. Exponential
    B. Direct Proportional
    C. Indirect Proportional
    D. Sinusoidal

    B. Direct Proportional
    

    The reaction of a photographic film to light is equal to the product of the intensity of the light and the duration of the exposure. This concept is known as _____.
    A. The reciprocity law
    B. The inverse square law
    C. Coulomb’s law
    D. The 15% rule

    A. The reciprocity law
    

    If the mAs used to create one image is the same as the mAs used to create a second image of the same structure, then both images should have the same ______.
    A. Detail
    B. Distortion
    C. Density
    D. Contrast

    C. Density
    

    Increasing the kVp on an x-ray control panel will cause _____ across the x-ray tube.
    A. A decrease in the number of electrons
    B. A decrease in the speed of electrons
    C. An increase in the number of electrons
    D. An increase in the speed of electrons

    D. An increase in the speed of electrons
    

    Increasing the energy of an incident electron will result in the production of an x-ray photon with ______.
    A. Greater energy
    B. Less energy
    C. Greater charge
    D. Less charge

    A. Greater energy
    

    If kVp is doubled, the amount of x-ray photons approximately _______.
    A. doubles
    B. triples
    C. increases fourfold
    D. decreases

    C. increases fourfold
    

    Kilovoltage is the primary controller of _____.
    A. Density
    B. Contrast
    C. Elongation
    D. Foreshortening

    B. Contrast
    

    An increase in kVp by 15% will cause an approximate ____ in the exposure.
    A. 15% increase
    B. Tripling
    C. Doubling
    D. Quadrupling

    C. Doubling
    

    Adjustments in kVp should be used to control radiographic _____.
    A. Density
    B. Detail
    C. Contrast
    D. Distance

    C. Contrast
    

    The relationship between the intensity of radiation and distance is the _____.
    A. Reciprocity Law
    B. Inverse Square Law
    C. Direct Square Law
    D. 15% Rule

    B. Inverse Square Law
    

    The complete construction of diagnostic radiographic film includes _____.
    A. A polyester base
    B. An adhesive material
    C. An emulsion
    D. All of the above

    D. All of the above
    

    Qualities of a good film base include ____.
    A. Flexibility
    B. Uniform lucency
    C. Stability
    D. All of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    Adhesive is used to ____.
    A. Glue the crystals to the base
    B. Glue the emulsion to the base
    C. Glue the gelatin to the crystals
    D. Produce air bubbles during processing

    B. Glue the emulsion to the base
    

    Emulsion is composed of gelatin and ____.
    A. Silver halide crystals
    B. Silver salt
    C. Photosensitive crystals
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    The gelatin is used to ___.
    A. form the silver halide crystal lattice
    B. react with the silver halide crystals
    C. distribute the crystals evenly over the surface of the film
    D. form a rigid base for the emulsion

    C. distribute the crystals evenly over the surface of the film
    

    The photosensitive agents used in diagnostic radiographic film include silver ____.
    A. bromide
    B. iodide
    C. chloride
    D. all of the above

    D. All of the above
    

    The most commonly used silver halide is silver ____.
    A. iodide
    B. bromide
    C. chloride
    D. fluoride

    B. bromide
    

    Silver bromide precipitates out when silver nitrate reacts with _____.
    A. bromide nitrate
    B. silver potassium
    C. potassium nitrate
    D. potassium bromide

    D. potassium bromide
    

    The waste product formed during crystal production is ____.
    A. silver bromide
    B. potassium nitrate
    C. potassium bromide
    D. silver nitrate

    B. potassium nitrate
    

    Each crystal is a cubic lattice of each of the following atoms except ____.
    A. silver
    B. potassium
    C. bromide
    D. iodine

    B. potassium
    

    The crystal lattice is bound together with which type of bond?
    A. ionic
    B. covalent
    C. halide
    D. non-ionic

    A. ionic
    

    The impurity added to the crystal lattice is ___.
    A. Gold-silver nitride
    B. Gold-silver sulfide
    C. Gold-platinum nitride
    D. Gold-platinum sulfide

    B. Gold-silver sulfide
    

    The impurity added to the crystal lattice is called the ______.
    A. silver ion
    B. gold-silver dust
    C. sensitivity speck
    D. hardener

    C. sensitivity speck
    

    The purpose of the sensitivity speck is to ____.
    A. attract free silver ions
    B. repel free silver ions
    C. cause the crystal lattice to grow
    D. cause the crystal lattice to collapse

    A. attract free silver ions
    

    Which type of film is sensitive to all color?
    A. ultrachromatic
    B. panchromatic
    C. parachromatic
    D. orthochromatic

    B. panchromatic
    

    Which photons primarily interact with the radiographic film?
    A. x-ray
    B. heat
    C. light
    D. sound

    C. light
    

    The unseen change in the atomic structure of the crystal lattice is called the ____ image.
    A. visible
    B. latent
    C. invisible
    D. phantom

    B. latent
    

    According to the Gurney-Mott theory, the incident photon interacts with one of the halides and ejects a/an ____.
    A. electron
    B. x-ray photon
    C. light photon
    D. sensitivity speck

    A. electron
    

    A single incident photon may free ____ electron (s) for deposition at sensitivity specks.
    A. a single
    B. two
    C. thousands
    D. millions

    C. thousands
    

    Which type of film has the fastest speed?
    A. screen film
    B. mammographic film
    C. dental film
    D. extremity detail film

    A. screen film
    

    Radiographic film should be stored _____.
    A. at a temperature below 68 degrees
    B. in 30 to 60% humidity
    C. on end
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    The primary purpose of radiographic processing is to convert the ____ image into the ___ image.
    A. latent, visible
    B. latent, invisible
    C. visible, latent
    D. processed, latent

    A. latent, visible
    

    The most variable and sensitive factor in the production of the radiograph is the ____.
    A. focal spot size
    B. radiographic film processor
    C. radiographic film
    D. intensifying screen

    B. radiographic film processor
    

    Each of the following is a primary step of automatic processing except ____.
    A. drying
    B. developing
    C. ripening
    D. fixing

    C. ripening
    

    An image becomes visible during _____.
    A. washing
    B. fixing
    C. drying
    D. development

    D. development
    

    The primary chemical agents in the developer are called ____ agents.
    A. reducing
    B. clearing
    C. circulation
    D. replenishment

    A. reducing
    

    The primary chemical agents in the fixer are called ____ agents.
    A. reducing
    B. clearing
    C. circulation
    D. replenishment

    B. clearing
    

    When unexposed silver halides are reduced by a solution with a high concentration this is called ___ fog.
    A. concentration
    B. chemical
    C. heat
    D. reducing

    B. chemical
    

    If silver halide crystals have more than three silver atoms on their sensitivity specks, the crystal will be able to be ____.
    A. ripened
    B. developed
    C. washed away
    D. none of the above

    B. developed
    

    The reducing agent used in automatic radiographic processors is ____.
    A. phenidone
    B. hydroquinone
    C. PQ developer
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    Which reducing agent works only in areas of light exposure?
    A. phenidone
    B. hydroquinone
    C. sodium carbonate
    D. potassium bromide

    A. phenidone
    

    Which reducing agent slowly reduces silver, producing heavy density?
    A. phenidone
    B. hydroquinone
    C. sodium carbonate
    D. potassium bromide

    B. hydroquinone
    

    When phenidone and hydroquinone are combined, their reducing ability is greater than the sum of their independent abilities. This phenomenon is known as ____.
    A. superreduction
    B. supermultiplicity
    C. superadditivity
    D. superoxidation

    C. superadditivity
    

    As the developer is in its final stages of oxidation, its color will change to ___.
    A. sky blue
    B. lemon yellow
    C. mossy green
    D. rusty red

    D. rusty red
    

    The restrainer added to the developer is ____.
    A. potassium bromide
    B. sodium sulfite
    C. gluteraldehyde
    D. water

    A. potassium bromide
    

    The preservative agent added in both the developer and the fixer is ____.
    A. potassium bromide
    B. sodium sulfite
    C. gluteraldehyde
    D. water

    B. sodium sulfite
    

    The most common developer solution hardener is ___.
    A. potassium bromide
    B. sodium sulfite
    C. gluteraldehyde
    D. water

    C. gluteraldehyde
    

    The solvent used in both developing and fixing is ____.
    A. potassium bromide
    B. sodium sulfite
    C. gluteraldehyde
    D. water

    D. water
    

    Which automatic processor solution is most affected by contamination?
    A. developer
    B. fixer
    C. wash
    D. replenisher

    A. developer
    

    The most common cause of developer contamination is ____.
    A. roller drag
    B. cross-over
    C. splashing
    D. drying

    C. splashing
    

    Why is the processor lid propped open when the processor is not in use?
    A. to prevent evaporation
    B. to prevent fixer condensation
    C. to prevent contamination
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    A clearing agent will bond with ____.
    A. unexposed silver halides
    B. exposed silver halides
    C. the gelatin
    D. the solvent

    A. unexposed silver halides
    

    The most commonly used clearing agents found in fixer solution is ____.
    A. silver halide
    B. sodium carbonate
    C. ammonium thiosulfate
    D. water

    C. ammonium thiosulfate
    

    The usual clearing time is ____.
    A. 1 to 5 sec
    B. 15 to 20 sec
    C. 30 to 60 sec
    D. 2 min

    B. 15 to 20 sec
    

    Developer has an ____ pH, while the fixer has an ____ pH.
    A. acidic, acidic
    B. acidic, alkaline
    C. alkaline, acidic
    D. alkaline, alkaline

    C. alkaline, acidic
    

    Fixer solution becomes saturated with ____ ions.
    A. bromide
    B. silver
    C. sodium
    D. copper

    B. silver
    

    The washing process is used to remove ____.
    A. developer only
    B. fixer olny
    C. heavy densities only
    D. developer and fixer

    D. developer and fixer
    

    If the fixer is not cleared from the film, it may result in ____.
    A. yellowing of the emulsion after a few years
    B. added density
    C. increased radiographic contrast
    D. none of the above

    A. yellowing of the emulsion after a few years
    

    Which type of replenishment system is designed to be used in a very busy radiology department?
    A. metric replenishment
    B. volume replenishment
    C. flood replenishment
    D. standard replenishment

    B. volume replenishment
    

    Equipment used to carry out sensitometric procedures includes ___.
    A. penetrometer
    B. sensitometer
    C. densitometer
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    A penetrometer is referred to as ____.
    A. densitometer
    B. step wedge
    C. sensitometer
    D. none of the above

    B. step wedge
    

    A penetrometer is excellent for monitoring each of the following except ____.
    A. x-ray equipment
    B. film processor
    C. film/screen combinations
    D. none of the above

    B. film processor
    

    A sensitometer is excellent for monitoring which one of the following?
    A. none of the above
    B. film processor
    C. film/screen combinations

    B. film processor
    

    A densitometer is an instrument that provides a readout of ____.
    A. density
    B. contrast
    C. detail
    D. distortion

    A. density
    

    The optical density formula includes which factors?
    A. intensity of incident light
    B. intensity of transmitted light
    C. the log of 10
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    The ability of film to stop light is termed ____.
    A. incidence
    B. lucency
    C. opacity
    D. neutrality

    C. opacity
    

    D log E curves are also known as ____ curves.
    A. characteristic
    B. sensitometric
    C. H & D
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    Important elements of the typical D log E curve include each of the following except ____.
    A. toe
    B. arm
    C. shoulder
    D. gamma

    B. arm
    

    The density at no exposure is termed the ____.
    A. toe
    B. base plus fog
    C. shoulder
    D. Dmax

    B. base plus fog
    

    Film may experience fog in the form of ____.
    A. heat
    B. light
    C. radiation
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    The toe of the D log E curve is controlled by ____.
    A. phenidone
    B. hydroquinone
    C. PQ developer
    D. all of the above

    A. phenidone
    

    The shoudler of the D log E curve is controlled by __.
    A. phenidone
    B. hydroquinone
    C. sodium carbonate
    D. potassium bromide

    B. hydroquinone
    

    Where on the D log E curve is the majority of diagnostic information found?
    A. toe
    B. shoulder
    C. straight line portion
    D. Dmax

    C. straight line portion
    

    The maximum density that the film is able to record is ____.
    A. toe
    B. shoulder
    C. straight line portion
    D. Dmax

    D. Dmax
    

    Which point on the D log E curve represents the point where all the silver halide crystals have full complement of silver atoms?
    A. toe
    B. shoudler
    C. straight line portion
    D. Dmax

    D. Dmax
    

    Additional exposure beyond Dmax results in a process known as ____.
    A. solarization
    B. resolution
    C. contrast
    D. electrification

    A. solarization
    

    Which type of film is preexposed to Dmax so that additional exposure will cause a reversal of the image?
    A. screen film
    B. mammographic
    C. duplication
    D. dental

    C. duplication
    

    The primary characteristics of film include each of the following except ____.
    A. resolution
    B. longitude
    C. speed
    D. contrast

    B. longitude
    

    Resolution is also known as ____.
    A. detail
    B. definition
    C. resolving power
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    Film resolution is determined by ____.
    A. silver halide crystal size
    B. processor time
    C. processor temperature
    D. speed point

    A. silver halide crystal size
    

    Radiographic film/screen system resolution is generally controlled by ____.
    A. intensifying screen crystals
    B. film emulsion crystals
    C. bucky oscillation
    D. SID

    A. intensifying screen crystals
    

    Film sensitivity is affected by the ____.
    A. size of the silver halide crystals
    B. number of sensitivity specks
    C. thickness of the emulsion layer
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    The difference between adjacent densities is ___.
    A. resolution
    B. speed
    C. definition
    D. contrast

    D. contrast
    

    Contrast is defined by ____.
    A. how close the toe is to the origin
    B. the slope of the straight line
    C. how close the shoulder is to Dmax
    D. the rise of the straight line

    B. the slope of the straight line
    

    Intensifying screens are used to ___.
    A. reduce patient radiation dose
    B. produce light photons
    C. amplify the incoming x-ray beam
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    What percentage of the latent image is formed by the light photons produced on the intensifying screen?
    A. 100%
    B. 99%
    C. 50%
    D. 1%

    B. 99%
    

    What percentage of the latent image is formed by the x-ray photons?
    A. 100%
    B. 99%
    C. 50%
    D. 1%

    D. 1%
    

    Intensifying screens are typically used with which type of film?
    A. dental
    B. mammographic
    C. single emulsion
    D. duplitized

    D. duplitized
    

    An intensifying screen consists of each of the following except ____.
    A. base
    B. phosphor layer
    C. lead strips
    D. reflective layer

    C. lead strips
    

    When a phosphor is struck by an x-ray photon, it will emit light _____.
    A. parallel to the angle of incidence
    B. perpendicular to the angle of incidence
    C. at a 45 degree angle to the angle of incidence
    D. in all directions

    D. in all directions
    

    The active layer of the intensifying screen is the ____.
    A. base
    B. reflective layer
    C. protective layer
    D. phosphor layer

    D. phosphor layer
    

    The protective layer of an intensifying screen is easily damaged by ____.
    A. excess light
    B. fingernails
    C. single emulsion film
    D. water

    B. fingernails
    

    The type of interaction that takes place between the x-ray photon and the high anatomic number phosphor is ____.
    A. photoelectric
    B. Compton
    C. Both A and B
    D. Neither A nor B

    C. both a and b
    

    The ability of the phosphor to emit as much light per x-ray photon interaction as possible is a measurement of the ____.
    A. brilliance
    B. spectral emission
    C. atomic number
    D. screen speed

    D. screen speed
    

    The precise wavelength of light emitted by the phosphor is termed the ___.
    A. spectral emission
    B. conversion efficiency
    C. conversion emission
    D. spectral efficiency

    A. spectral emission
    

    The ability of a material to emit light in response to excitation is ____.
    A. intensification
    B. fluorescence
    C. phosphorescence
    D. luminescence

    D. luminescence
    

    Delayed phosphorescent emission is called ____.
    A. screen lag
    B. afterglow
    C. both a and b
    D. neither a nor b

    C. both a and b
    

    When an insufficient quantity of photons strikes the intensifying screen, ____ will appear on the film as graininess.
    A. lagging speed
    B. quantum mottle
    C. quantum number
    D. latitude

    B. quantum mottle
    

    To eliminate quantum mottle ____.
    A. increase kVp
    B. decrease mAs
    C. increase mAs
    D. increase kVp

    C. increase mAs
    

    To increase the speed of an intensifying screen ____.
    A. increase phosphor size
    B. decrease layer thickness
    C. decrease phosphor concentration
    D. all of the above

    A. increase phosphor size
    

    Poor screen/film contact can produce ____.
    A. increased density
    B. lack of detail
    C. lack of contrast
    D. increase detail

    B. lack of detail
    

    Which film type is more sensitive to the entire range of rare-earth phosphor emissions?
    A. blue sensitive
    B. yellow sensitive
    C. green sensitive
    D. all of the above

    C. green sensitive
    

    Which film type is least sensitive to the rare-earth phosphors?
    A. blue sensitive
    B. yellow sensitive
    C. green sensitive
    D. all of the above

    A. blue sensitive
    

    The most common RS combination used in hospital settings is ____.
    A. 20
    B. 400
    C. 1,000
    D. 1,200

    B. 400
    

    Recorded detail is measured in each of the following except ____.
    A. oscillation transfer function
    B. line pairs per millimeter
    C. line spread function
    D. modulation transfer function

    A. oscillation transfer function
    

    Contrast is primarily a function of the ____.
    A. scatter
    B. anode
    C. film
    D. intensifying screen

    C. film
    

    Narrow latitude systems exhibit ____ contrast.
    A. low
    B. long scale
    C. high
    D. zero

    C. high
    

    The density of the radiographic image is the ____.
    A. easiest prime technical factor to evaluate
    B. result of black metallic silver deposited on the radiograph
    C. degree of overall blackening
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    The optical density range visible to the human eye is:
    A. 0.025 to 0.25
    B. 0.25 to 2.50
    C. 2.50 to 20.50
    D. 20.50 to 200.50

    B. 0.25 to 2.50
    

    The _____ factors should be used as the principle method for adjusting radiographic density.
    A. influencing
    B. guiding
    C. controlling
    D. manipulating

    C. controlling
    

    The controlling factor of density is _____.
    A. kVp
    B. mA
    C. time
    D. milliamperes

    B. mA
    

    Which statement is incorrect?
    A. as mAs increases, exposure increases
    B. as mAs decreases, density decreases
    C. as mAs increases, density increases
    D. as mAs decreases, exposure increases

    D. as mAs decreases, exposure increases
    

    The minimum change necessary to cause a visible shift in density is ____ percent of mAs.
    A. 10
    B. 30
    C. 50
    D. none of the above

    B. 30
    

    Which generator would produce the greatest amount of radiographic density?
    A. single phase, two pulse
    B. three phase, six pulse
    C. three phase, twelve pulse
    D. a high frequency generator

    D. a high frequency generator
    

    Which rule is used as a guide to maintain the same density when kVp changes?
    A. doubling rule
    B. 15% rule
    C. inverse-square rule
    D. density maintenance law

    B. 15% rule
    

    Which factor influences the average energy of photons reaching the radiograph film?
    A. kVp
    B. mA
    C. time
    D. both b and c

    A. kVp
    

    The 15% rule will change ____.
    A. density
    B. contrast
    C. distortion
    D. both a and b

    D. both a and b
    

    The relationship between exposure and SID is ____.
    A. directly proportional
    B. inversely proportional
    C. directly proportional to the square of the distance
    D. inversely proportional to the square of the distance

    C. directly proportional to the square of the distance
    

    The detail of a radiograph image is visible due to ____.
    A. sufficient contrast
    B. sufficient density
    C. both a and b
    D. neither a nor b

    C. both a and b
    

    The difference between two adjacent densities is ______.
    A. detail
    B. short-scale density
    C. contrast

    C. contrast
    

    A radiograph with few shades of gray will exhibit _____.
    A. low contrast
    B. high contrast
    C. medium contrast
    D. no density

    B. high contrast
    

    Which radiograph would provide the most information?
    A. no density
    B. high contrast
    C. low density
    D. low contrast

    D. low contrast
    

    The controlling factor of contrast is ____.
    A. kVp
    B. mAs
    C. time
    D. milliamperes

    A. kVp
    

    A radiograph that demonstrates considerable differences between densities is called _____.
    A. short scale
    B. high contrast
    C. increased contrast
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    A radiograph that demonstrates considerable differences between densities is called _____.
    A. long scale
    B. low contrast
    C. increased contrast
    D. all of the above

    C. increased contrast
    

    Image receptor contrast is expressed as the ____ of the D log E curve.
    A. slope
    B. toe
    C. shoulder
    D. straight line

    A. slope
    

    Contrast will decrease with ____.
    A. excessive density
    B. inadequate density
    C. a wider range of densities
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    As the slope of the D log E curve _____, contrast _____.
    A. increases, decreases
    B. decreases, increases
    C. increases, increases
    D. moves closer to vertical, decreases

    C. increases, increases
    

    As kVp _____, a ______ range of photon energies is produced.
    A. increases, wider
    B. increases, narrower
    C. decreases, wider
    D. none of the above

    A. increases, wider
    

    Contrast will increase with each of the following except _____.
    A. decreased kVp
    B. decreased field size
    C. decreased part thickness
    D. increased scatter

    D. increased scatter
    

    High contrast is directly related to _____.
    A. the number of photoelectric interactions
    B. high kVp
    C. the amount of compton scatter
    D. all of the above

    A. the number of photoelectric interactions
    

    The unit of resolution is _____.
    A. Curie
    B. line pairs per millimeter
    C. penumbra
    D. all of the above

    B. line pairs per millimeter
    

    Poor resolution is caused by unacceptable levels of _____.
    A. umbrella
    B. umbra
    C. penumbra
    D. all of the above

    C. penumbra
    

    Factors affecting recorded detail include ____.
    A. kVp
    B. grids
    C. mA
    D. focal spot size

    D. focal spot size
    

    Resolution is improved when _____.
    A. OID increases
    B. OID decreases
    C. SID decreases
    D. none of the above

    B. OID decreases
    

    Resolution is improved when _____.
    A. OID increases
    B. SID increases
    C. SID decreases
    D. none of the above

    B. SID increases
    

    Penumbra decreases as _____.
    A. focal spot decreases
    B. OID decreases
    C. SID increases
    D. all of the above

    D. all of the above
    

    Resolution will increase as ______ increases.
    A. phosphor size
    B. phosphor layer thickness
    C. phosphor concentration
    D. all of the above

    C. phosphor concentration
    

    The best method for controlling motion when the patient is unable to cooperate is to _____.
    A. increase kVp
    B. maintain mAs, while decreasing time
    C. maintain mAs, while decreasing mA
    D. decrease kVp

    B. maintain mAs, while decreasing time
    

    As a last resort, which human immobilizer would be selected first to hold a patient in position?
    A. the radiography student
    B. the radiologic technologist
    C. the ER nurse
    D. the male relative

    D. the male relative
    

    Distortion is a misrepresentation of _____.
    A. size only
    B. shape only
    C. size and shape
    D. detail

    C. size and shape
    

    Size distortion in radiography can be ____ only.
    A. foreshortening
    B. magnification
    C. elongation

    B. magnification

    MR said:
    September 25, 2013 at 6:17 am

    Brain imaging has progressed from exclusion of rare treatable mass lesions to a specific antemortem diagnosis. MR imaging−derived hippocampal atrophy and WMH are regarded as imaging biomarkers of AD and CVD respectively. Abnormal FP-CIT SPECT or cardiac iodobenzamide SPECT is a useful supportive imaging feature in the diagnosis of DLB. Frontal and/or anterior temporal atrophy and anterior defects on molecular imaging with FDG-PET or perfusion SPECT are characteristic of FTDs. Whole-body FDG-PET may be helpful in patients with rapidly progressing “autoimmune dementias,” and FLAIR and DWI are indicated in suspected CJD. A major role of imaging is in the development of new drugs and less costly biomarkers.

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