Positioning test

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ANATOMY & Positioning of the Upper Ext & Shoulder

Question Answer
How many phalanges are there? 14
The largest carpal bone is what? Capitate
Which carpal bone has a “HOOK LIKE” process? Hamate
Which carpal bone is MOON SHAPED Lunate
How many carpal bones are in the wrist? 8
The ULNA is located on what dies of the forearm Medical (Pinky Side)
The Proximal end of the radius contains what? Radial Head, Neck and tuberosity
The Olecranon Fossa is located on? Posterior/Anterior Humerous
The greater and lesser tubercles are located on the what? Proximal End of the humerous
The shoulder girdle consist of what? Scapula and Clavicle
Which of the following is NOT one of the scapula borders? Superior – Medial – Lateral
The shoulder joint is formed by the articulation of the head of the   humerous and _____ of the scapula? Glenoid Cavity
The medial end of the clavical is called the what? Sternal End
THERE WILL BE MATCHING – KNOW LONG-SHORT-FLAT BONES (there will be   no irregular bones) Know the LONG – SHORT – FLAT BONES
The Phalanges Bones are what? Long Bones
The Carpal Bones are what? Short Bones
The Radial and Ulna Bones are what? Long Bones
The Metecarpals bones are what? Long Bones
The Scapula are what? Flat Bones
The Clavical Bones are what? Long Bones
The Phalanges (fingers) are called what kind of joint? Interphalangeal Joint
All of the Interphalangeal joints allow for what movement? Hinge Movement
The Metacarpal Phalangeal Joints allow for what movement? Circumduction Movement
The radiocarpal joint allows for what movement? Circumduction Movement
Flexion and Extenion of the Elbow Joint allows for what movement? Hinge Movement
The Proximal RadialUlnar joint allows for what movement? Rotational Movement
The Shoulder joint allows for what type of movement? Circumduction Movement
The AC (acromioclavicular) joint and the SC (sternoclavicular) joint   allows for what movement? Gliding Movement
What part of the hand has only 1 Interphalangeal (IP) The THUMP (IP)
What digits Numbers have both PROXIMAL (PIP) and Distal (DIP) Digits 2 thru
In the LATERAL PROJECTION of the thumb   the CR is directed to what ? MCP1
For a PA Projection of the hand should be   in what position? LATERAL POSITION
Where is the CR (Central Ray) directed   for a PA of the 5th Digit PIP Joint
For the lateral of the 2nd digit what   projection should you obtain? Medial Lateral
(T/F) A medial lateral projection is the   correct xray for the 4th digit? FALSE (Lateral is correct)
The correct degree of a PA Oblique of the   3rd digit is? 45*
For a LATERAL HAND the fingers should be   what? (Karate Chop position) Fingers should be   extended and superimposed-with thumb extended
(T/F) For a PA Projection of the hand it   is PARRELL to the IR? TRUE
Where is the CR drected for a LATERAL   Hand? 2nd MCP Joint
The hand should be rotated ____ to obtain   an OBLIQUE Position EXTERNALLY
For a LATERAL Wrist the CR should be   directed to the Middle of what? Mid carpals
For a PA Projection of the wrist the hand   is? Pronated and forms a slight fist.   Parallel to the cassette
For a PA Projection of the SCAFOID?
The CR is directed how many degrees   toward the elbow? 20*
(T-F) The CR should be angled 25* to 30*   toward the palm for a tangential view of the wrists? TRUE
To include the wrist and elbow joint for   an adult the IR should be placed how? Diagnally
For a LATERAL FOREARM the elbow should be   flexed how many degrees? 90*
For a LATERAL FOREARM what projection   should you obtain? Lateral Medial
What position or projection of the elbow   demonstrates the radial head/neck of superimpostion AP External Oblique
What AP Projection of the elbow   epicondyle should be_______ to the IR Parallel
T/F = For the LATERAL Elbow the CR should   be directed to the Medial Epicondyle? FALSE (should be LATERAL)
For an AP Humerous Projection a 14″   x 17″ should be placed ____________ with the top of the IR __________   above the shoulders 1) Longitudinally 2) 1.5″ to 2″
For a lateral humerous the hand should be   placed on the what? HIP
Which position of projection demostrates   the greater tubercle in profile laterally AP with External Rotation
What position or projection is used to   demonstrate “OPEN” joint space with Glenoid Humerous Joints? AB Oblique (GRASHEY) Glenohumeral View
Where should the CR be directed for AP   Shoulder with External Rotation? CR 1″ Medial and inferior to   corticoid process/IR
T/F = A Transthoracic Lateral Shoulder   Exam requires a breathing technique TRUE
For an AP or PA Oblique Scapular of the   Shoulder the body is rotated how many degrees? 45*-60*
When X-Raying the Clavical and the AP   Projection you can free from superimposition of the shoulder by angling the   CR? 15-30 Cephalad to Mid Clavical
Where should the CR be directed for an AP   Clavical? Mid Clavical
T/F= For an AP Scapula the humerous   should be abducted 90* away from the body with the hand supinated. (Sworn for   Trial) TRUE
For and AP Projection of the lateral   scapula the arm should be placed in what position? Across the chest or behind the back
For AP Projection of an AC Joints should   be done with a patient? Standing or Erect
Is an AP Projection of an AC Joint done   WITH or WITHOUT weights to demonstrate ligament damamge? DONE WITH WEIGHTS
What degenrative joint disease is   commonly seen on images of the hand and wrist? Arthritis
T/F= A COLLES Frature of the wrist occurs   when a person falls and extends their hand to break their fall True
The MOST COMMON Elbow fracture occurs   where? At the RADIAL HEAD/NECK
Page 9/10 ID Picture of DISLOCATED   SHOULDER DISLOCATED SHOULDER
Which Carpal Bone most frequently   fractured? Navicular or Scapula
What joint has the greatest range of   movement in the body? SHOULDER
What is another name for the AP Oblique? Grashey
What type of fracture usually visualizes   as a fracture of the 4th or 5th Metacarpal BOXERS (Common fracture seen in the hand)

 

Anatomy and Positioning

Question Answer
What is the degree of the CR of an Axial Calcaneus? 40 cephalic
Where does the CR enter for an Axial Calcaneus? Plantodorsal at base of third metatarsal
How is the pt positioned for a Lateral Calcaneus? On affected side with leg almost lateral
Where is the CR for a Lat Calcaneus? Perp to calcaneus, 1″ below medial malleolus
What is shown on a Lat Calcaneus? Total calcaneus in profile, sinus tarsi
What are the 3 parts of the ankle joint? lateral malleolus of fib inferior surface of tibia medial malleolus   of tibia
Why is the ankle able to adduct/abduct? Due to the gliding of the intertarsals
In a true lateral ankle, what structures are superimposed? the distal fibula is over posterior half of tibia
What is seen superimposed in the AP ankle? anterior tubercle of tibia slightly over the fibula
How is the patient positioned for a Lateral Ankle? On affected side with foot dorsiflexed
Which lateral ankle is more difficult for the pt? Lateromedial is harder for pt and has increased OID for tibiotalar   joint
What is structure is best demonstrated in an AP Oblique Ankle? The lateral malleolus
What is the angle of CR for AP Mortise Joint? 15-20

 

Anatomy and positioning for cxr

Question Answer
3 sections of the chest bony thorax, respiratory system proper,   mediastinum
Bony thorax consists of? sternum, 2 clavicles, 2 scapulae, 12   pairs of ribs, 12 thoracic vertebrae
4 divisions of the respiratory system? larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Primary muscle of inspiration? Diaphragm L & R hemidiaphragm
Pharynx? passageway for both food and fluid, as   well as air, common to digestive and respiratory system, 3 divisions:   nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Epilgottis? during swallowing flips down & covers   laryngeal opening, prevents food & fluid from entering the larynx and   bronchi, composed of cartilage
Esophagus? connects pharynx to stomach, posterior to   larynx and trachea
Larynx? voice box, suspended from hyoid bone, between C3 and C6, anterior wall made of throid cartilage, cricoid cartilage forms inferior and posterior wall
Trachea? windpipe, 20 C shaped rings keep it open,   extends from C6 to T4/T5
Thyroid gland? helps regulate body growth, stores   hormones that aid in metabolism, very radiosensitive
Thymus gland? T cells, very prominent in infants   decreases in size until adulthood, functions in producing antibodies
Rt & Lt Bronch? Rt is wide, short, and vertical, divides   into 3 secondary bronchi, Lt is narrow and horizontal, divides into 2   secondary bronchi, point of carina divides the trachea into rt & lt @ T5
Bronchioles? Rt & Lt secondary bronchi that   continue to subdivide eventually into terminal bronchioles and alveoli
Alveoli? O2 & CO2 exchanged through thin   walls, 500 to 700 million in the lungs
Rt. Lung? 3 lobes (superior, middle, inferior)   seperated by 2 deep fissures (horizontal and oblique)
Lt. Lung? 2 lobes (superior, inferior) seperated by   1 deep oblique fissure
Lungs? made of parenchyma (light spongy elastic   substance), contained in double walled sac called pleura, outer layer is   parietal, inner layer is pulmonary/visceral layer
Pneumothorax air or gas present in the pleural cavity
Hemothorax blood or fluid in pleural cavity
Anatomy included on PA chest? Apices —> costophrenic angles bases,   diaphragms, carina, hilum, heart, trachea. ribs, clavicles
Mediastinum? thymus, heart and great vessels, trachea,   esophagus
Heart & Great Vessels? inferior/superior venae cava, aorta,   pulmonary arterires and veins
Superior Venae Cava? returns blood to the heart from upper   body
Inferior Venae Cava? returns blood to the heart from lower   body
Pulmonary artery? carries deoxygenated blood
Pulmonary vein? carries oxygenated blood
Hypersthenic? 5% broad, barrel chested
Sthenic? 50% “normal”
Hyposthenic? 35% slightly smaller than   “normal” but bigger than asthenic
Asthenic? 10% skinny

 

Anatomy and procedures of the thoracic viscera

Question Answer
thoracic cavity chest cavity
what are the thoracic cavity components? cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive,   endocrine, nervous, and lymphatic system
what are the three separate chambers of   the thoracic cavity? pericardium and the right and left   pleural cavities
pleural double layer membrane that surrounds the   lungs (space between visceral and parietal membranes)
parietal pleural (lining) the outer membrane, wall covering of the   thoracic cavity
visceral pleural (lining) the inner membrane, direct contact with   the organ
name two thoracic cavity boundaries? the superior thoracic aperture (STA) and   the and the inferior thoracic aperture (ITA)
Superior Thoracic Aperture apex of lungs
Inferior Thoracic Aperture where diaphragm is
what position separates air and fluid   best? upright position
pneumothorax air in pleural cavity/space seen on an   image as pitch black
hemathorax blood in the pleural cavity/space
pleural effusion fluid in the pleural cavity/space
empyema puss in the pleural cavity puss will   appear lighter on image due to density
atelectasis complete or partial collapse of a lung   due to obstruction
CAB coronary artery bypass graph (cabbage)
pleural cavity function and blood supply adhesive of two membranes   parietal/visceral. visceral is dual blood supply
mediastinum area between the lungs right in the   center
what are the three openings from the   mediastinum through the diaphragm? esophagus, vena cava, and the aorta
radiographically important mediastinum   structures heart shadow, thymus gland (only seen in   children), trachea, esophagus, and great vessels
where is the thymus gland located? right in front of the trachea in the   superior mediastinum
function and size of thymus gland primary control organ of the lymphatic   system as a child its bigger but as you age it gets smaller (controls immune   system)
glotis is a slit or opening
what consists of the respiratory system? nasal cavities, oral cavity, pharynx,   larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs
what are three divisions of the pharynx? nasopharynx, oropharynx, and the   laryngopharynx
larynx voice box, vocal cords
esophagus part of the digestive system that   connects pharynx to stomach. posterior to larynx and trachea
trachea windpipe which divides into or bifurcates   into bronchi
right primary bronchus wider and shorter than the left bronchus   and divides into three secondary bronchi each entering into a separate lobe
left primary bronchus smaller in diameter but about twice as   long and divides into two separate secondary bronchi each entering into a   separate lobe
carina specific prominence or ridge that   divides/ bifurcates into the right and left bronchi
terminal bronchioles smaller branches that spread from   secondary bronchi to all parts of each lobe
avioli small air sacs where gas exchange take   place (oxygen in c02 out)
NASAL CAVITIES right and left chambers
nasal septum made up of two bones, cranial bone where   the appendicular plate of the ethmoid meets up with the vomer
sinuses 4 sets which are interconnected and open   up into nasal cavity
mucous membrane contains scilia
nasal conchae turbines 3 sets, inferior facial bones
PHARYNX nasopharynx- hard plate- maxilla bone   palatine process
soft palate behind hard palate, connects to nasal   cavity
uvula
tonsils and adenoids immune system
auditory tubes hook up to nasal pharnyx
oropharnyx behind mouth
laryngopharnyx behind throat leads into trachea
LARYNX glotis – slit or opening
epiglottis fibrocartilage that sits atop the glotis.   when down food goes to the esophagus
thyroid cartilage palpable landmark at the level c4-c5   (adams apple)is part of the voice box
cricoid cartilage sits below thyroid cartilage, does not   articulate with anything
vocal cords surrounded by voice box
TRACHEA hollow tube/ conducting zone.   measurements diameter 1/2 inch/ length 4 1/2 inches long posterior aspect:   flat location mediastinum, anterior to esophagus
carina hook like process where trachea splits
subdivisions of bronchial tree bronchus/bronchi/bronchioles
primary bronchus right and left primary bronchus
how many lobar or secoundary bronchi are   there in the body? 3 on the right and 2 on the left
how many segmental or tertiary bronchi   are there in the body? 10 on the right and 8 on the left
primary bronchioles
terminal bronchioles respitory zone leads to aviolar ducts to   alveolar sacs to aveoli
parenchyma spongy, elastic material that makes up   the lungs
alveoli functional unit of the lungs/ oxygen and   carbon dioxide exchange. millions in each lung
pulmonary arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to   the lungs
pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from lungs to   heart (left atrium)
LUNGS organs of respiration
apex top portion (of lungs)
base flat and bottom portion (of lungs)
costophrenic angles angles at the base of lungs on lateral   sides, by ribs
cardiophrenic angles angles at the base in direct contact with   the heart
hilum hilar region, where all bronchi enter at   middle of lungs also blood vessels
cardiac notch indentation in left lung where the heart   sits
costal surface surface that is in contact with the ribs,   visceral surface of the ribs
diaphragmatic surface in contact with diaphragm
mediastinal surface in contact with mediastinum, where hilar   region is
what is the position of the right lung? the righ lung is higher becuase of the   liver.
how many lobes are in each lobe? 3 right/ 2 left
fissures deep grooves which divides the lobes
how many fissures are in each lobe and   what are there names? the left lobe has 1 oblique fissure and   the right has 2 a horizontal and oblique
lingula not a fissure, an area of left lung near   the heart, if it had a middle lobe that is where it would be
inspiration inhalation. lung movement when lungs move   down, becuase diaphragm contracts and moves down. lungs expand, maximum   capacity of lungs is reached
expiration exhalaation. diaphragm moves up and lungs   contract, gert shorter
ageniesis lung number formed
hypoplasia lung under developed
cysts hollow cavity filled with fluid
broncheosphageal fistula abnormal communication between structures   or organs (can be born with or created)
tracheotomy a hole put in trachea so patient can   breath
lobectomy to take out portion of lung
pneumonectomy complete removal of a lung
segmental resection to remove a tumor from the lung
thoracoplasty a portion of the rib is removed to get to   the lung
thoracentesis fluid drained from thoracic cavity
bronchography an injection of contrast in bronchiole   tree
bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi
laryngitis inflammation of the voice box
pneumonitis inflammation of the lungs, infection
bronchopneumonia inflammation of part of a bronchi
lobar pneumonia inflammation of the lobe
pleurisy inflammation of the pleura, also called   pleuritis
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
emphysema disease of aviola, aviola loose elastic   ability, longs are long and dark
general guidelines for chest patient preparation- remove artifacts   bra/ earrings etc, IR size 14×17 for adults, dependant on body habitus/3 yr   old 10×12 SID- 72″ CHEST to get true size, ID markers, sheild, patient   instructions (double breathing for chest)
general patient position ambulatory – upright nonambulatory   patients- sitting upright in a stretcher
IR size depends on body habitus, use the smallest   IR that will demonstrate anatomy, do not forget to collimate
what is the SID for chest xrays? 72″ for chest
ID markers right or left side markers must be   included on each image. other required ID markers must be must be in the   blocker or elsewhere on the final image
radiation protection always shield patients
other radiation protection measures SID, technique factors and collimation
patient instructions explain and demonstrate positions, when   possible. respiration instructions are critical to image lung aeration.   exposures are usually made after the second deep inspiration
why would two radiographs be taken, one   on inspiration and one on expiration? it demonstrates the presence of a foreign   body, diaphragm movement, atelectasis (expiration) and pneumothorax
what are essential projections of the   chest? PA/LAT/AP- axial- lordotic if you want to   see the appexes of the lungs
PA chest patient position upright if possible to demonstrate air   fluid levels and allow diaphragm to move to its lowest position
PA chest part position patient faces vertical grid with MSP   centered and perpendicular. MCP parallel with IR 1.5-2″ above shoulders.   elbows flexed with back of hands rested on low hips. shoulders depressed and   rolled forward
PA/ CR perpendicular to center of IR. enters at   MSP and level of t7. technique 90-125 kv; automatic exposure control (AEC)two   outer shells 1&3/ halifax 1&2. exposure should be made at end of   second respiration
Lateral chest patient patient upright if possible top of IR 1.5-2″
Lateral part position MSP parallel with IR. MCP perpendicular   to IR. extend IR over head, elbows flexed and forearms rested on head
lateral chest/ CR perpendicular to IR. enters patient on   MCP at level t7. technique 105 kv automatic exposure control (AEC) center   cell. exposure made at end of second inspiration
what is the patient position for an AP   chest? supine used when patient is too ill for   upright positions
what is the part position for an AP   chest? center MSP to IR top of IR 1.5 to 2″   above the shoulders. if pt. condition permits, flex elbows, pronate hands on   hips to draw scapulas laterally
where is the CR on an AP chest? perpendicular to long axis of sternum and   center of IR. 3″ below jugular notch. technique high ma, low time. use   grid if pt. is larger than 12 cm. expose after second full inspiration
what is the pt position of AP axial chest   lordotic? upright facing tube about one foot in   front of the grid
part position for AP axial chest lordotic   position MSP centered to midline of grid. assist   pt. to lean backwards until shoulders rest on grid. top of IR placed 3″   above shoulders when pt. is in lordotic position
CR position for AP axial chest lordotic CR perpendicular to IR, enters MSP at   midsternum. AEC 1&3 /105 kv exposure made after second full inspiration.   15 to 20 degrees cephalic
for decubs which side do you mark? the side that is up
AP/PA lateral decubitus pt. position lateral decub on right or left side to   demostrate fluid, pt. should lie on affected side. to demonstrate free air   the pt. should be positioned on unaffected side. pt. needs to be in position   for 5 minutes
part position for AP/PA lateral decubitus   position elevate body 5-8 cm if lying on affected   side. true lateral without rotation(perpendicular to IR) extend arms over   head. anterior or posterior surface of chest against vertical grid device.   top of IR 1.5 to 2″ above shoulders
what are the essential projections for   lungs and pleurae? AP or PA- right or left lateral decubitus   position lateral- ventral or dorsal decubitus position
CR for AP/PA lateral decubitus position horizontal and perpendicular to center of   IR. enters MSP at 3″ below jugular for AP, t7 for PA.exposure made on   second full inspiration
patient and part position for lateral   ventral or dorsal positions pt. position- prone or supine. body   elevated 2-3″ part position- true prone or supine position without   rotation. affected side against vertical grid device with arms above head.   top of IR at level of thyroid cartilage
CR for lateral or dorsal decubitus   positions CR horizontal and perpendicular to IR.   enters at level of MCP , 3 to 4″ below jugular notch dorsal decubitus,   t7 for ventral decubitus. technique 105 kv/ AEC center field 2 (@ chest   bucky) otherwise manual technique with grid.expo sec inspir/ 5min flui/ai

 

Ankle comp qs knee posit

Question Answer
What part obliquity is used for an oblique ankle? 45
What part obliquity is used for an ankle mortise projection? 15-20
What is seen on an external rotation ankle? subtalar joint – tib-fib superimposed
What tube angle is used on a lateral knee? 5-7 cephalad
When the patients hips are over 25 cm how much angulation is used on   the AP? 5
What is measured for knee angulation? ASIS to tabletop
What measurement range is the CR perpendicular for a knee? 19-24 cm
What is seen on a lateral rotation knee? fibula over lateral 1/2 of tibia, patella beyond lateral condyle
What is seen on a medial rotation knee? tibia and fibula free, patella beyond medial condyle

 

Ankle comp qs knee posit

Question Answer
What part obliquity is used for an oblique ankle? 45
What part obliquity is used for an ankle mortise projection? 15-20
What is seen on an external rotation ankle? subtalar joint – tib-fib superimposed
What tube angle is used on a lateral knee? 5-7 cephalad
When the patients hips are over 25 cm how much angulation is used on   the AP? 5
What is measured for knee angulation? ASIS to tabletop
What measurement range is the CR perpendicular for a knee? 19-24 cm
What is seen on a lateral rotation knee? fibula over lateral 1/2 of tibia, patella beyond lateral condyle
What is seen on a medial rotation knee? tibia and fibula free, patella beyond medial condyle

 

Ankle/Foot Joints

Question Answer
interphalangeal articulations , between   phalanges are synovial hinges ONLY FLEX AND EXTEND
interphalangeal synovial ,hinge
metatarsophalangeal synovial, elipsoidal
intermetatarsal synovial gliding
calcaneocuboid synovial gliding
cunecuboid synovial gliding
intercuneform synovial gliding
ankle mortise: talo fibular and   tibiotalor synovial ,hinge
ankle mortise/mortise joint another name for ankle
ankle joint flexes , etend and abducts and adducts   slightly also inverts andeverts
tibiofibular (proximal) synovial ,hinge
tibiofibular ( distal) fibrous syndesmoisis
joints make it possible to support the   body,protect internal organs and create movement
joint classification functional and structural
structural joint classification most widely used
functional synarthroses;immovable,ampiarthroses;   slightly moveable,diarthroses; freely movable
structural fibrous; strongest joints of body   IMMOVABLE,cartilaginous slightly movable and last but not leastsynovial   freely movable
hinge (ginglymus) only flexion and extension (ANKLE)
gliding (plane) slight movement (intertarsal joints)
ellipsoid (condyloid) movement in two directions   flexion,etension, abduction, adduction, & circumduction
syndesmoisis immovable united by fibrous tissue   (inferior tibiofibular)

 

Posit. Lower extremity basics

Question Answer
a foot series is comprised of what? AP, AP axial, AP oblique, lateral
CR entry AP axial foot 10 degrees posterior to base of 3rd metatarsal
CR entry for foot projections perp. to base of third metatarsal
typical ankle projections AP, AP oblique
CR entry for ankle perp. to ankle joint
pt position AP oblique ankle for tib-fib pt supine, leg extended plantar surface perp. to IR, 45 degree   medial rotation.
pt position AP oblique ankle for mortise pt supine, leg extended plantar surface perp. to IR, 15-20 degree   medial rotation of leg and foot.
IR size for ankle 8 X 10
positions for lower leg projections AP, lateral
what is demonstrated on a lower leg radiograph? ankle and knee joints
IR size for lower leg 14 X 17

 

Posit. Pelvis, hip, femur

Question Answer
what positions are commonly done for the pelvis AP, AP oblique
CR entry AP pelvis perp. 2″ inferior to ASIS and 2″   superior to pubic symphysis
TOF AP pelvis 1 – 1 1/2″ superior to iliac crests
pt position AP pelvis pt. supine, separate heels 8-10″, rotate   15-20 degrees medially
CR entry AP oblique pelvis perp. MSP 1″ superior to pubic symphysis
pt position AP oblique pelvis supine, hips and knees flexed, thighs 45 degrees   off table.
name the 3 major hip projections AP, lateral, axiolateral
how do we find the femoral neck? 2.5″ distal to a line drawn from the ASIS to   the pubic symphysis.
IR size for hip projections 10 X 12
CR entry AP hip perp. to femoral neck
pt position AP hip supine, rotate affected limb 15-20 degrees   medially
how do we find the hip joint? 1.5″ distal to a line drawn between the ASIS   and pubic symphysis
CR entry launstein method lateral hip perp. to hip joint
CR entry hickey method lateral hip 20-25 degrees to hip joint
pt position lateral hip pt supine, knee and hip flexed, plantar surface   of foot on opposite knee
AP femur for knee joint BOF 2″ below knee joint
AP femur for hip joint TOF at ASIS
AP femur for hip leg rotation 10-15 degrees
lateral femur for knee position of part flex knee 45 degrees, epicondyles perp. to IR
lateral femur for hip position of part roll pelvis 10-15 degrees laterally

 

Posit. Ribs, chest

Question Answer
IR size for ribs 14 X 17
AD rib respiration inspiration
BD rib respiration expiration
TOF for AD ribs 1 1/2″ above shoulders
PA AD ribs arm position hands on backs of hips, shoulders rotated forward
AP AD ribs arm position hands behind head
what is demonstrated on an AD rib radiograph? ribs 1-9
BOF for BD ribs at the iliac crests
what is demonstrated on a BD rib radiograph? ribs 8-12
axillary AD rib demonstrates what? ribs 1-10
axillary BD rib demonstrates what? ribs 8-12
axillary AP oblique rib position of affected area rotate 45 degrees toward affected side, affected   side down, centered to grid
axillary PA oblique rib position of affected area rotate 45 degrees away from affected side,   affected side up, centered to grid
anterior axillary rib pain will result in what   type of projection? RAO or LAO
posterior axillary rib pain will result   in what type of projection? RPO or LPO
TOF for PA chest 1 1/2 – 2″ above shoulders
PA chest respiration suspend on second inspiration
CR entry point PA chest perp. T7
chest IR size 14 X 17″
SID for chest 72″

 

Posit. Shoulder girdle

Question Answer
what IR size is used for shoulder projections? 10 X 12
what is the CR entry for the various AP shoulder projections? perp. 1″ inferior to coracoid
what is the CR entry for the “Y-view” shoulder? per. to the scapulohumeral joint (mid medial border)
what is the arm position in the “Y-view” shoulder? neutral
what is the CR angle for an AP axial clavilce? 15-30 degrees cephalad
what projections commonly make up a clavicle series? AP, AP axial.
CR entry AP scapula perp. mid scapula (approx. 2″ inferior to coracoid)
CR entry lateral scapula perp. entering the mid medial border
what is the arm position for demonstrating the acromion and coracoid   during a lateral scapula? bend the elbow 90 degrees, and place the arm postoeriorly
what is the arm position for demonstrating the scapular body during   a lateral scapula? grasp the opposite shoulder or place forearm on head

 

Posit. upper extremity basics

Question Answer
what projections comprise a routing hand exam? PA, PA oblique, lateral
what is demonstrated in a hand x-ray? distal phalanx to MCP
what is the CR entry for all hand projections?   (single digit) perp. to PIP of affected digit
what projections make up a thumb series? AP, PA oblique, lateral
what is seen on a thumb x-ray? distal tip to trapezium
what is the CR entry for all thumb projections? perp. to MCP
what projections make up a wrist series? PA, PA oblique, lateral
what is the CR entry for all wrist projections? perp. mid carpal area
what should be included on a wrist radiograph? distal radius and ulna, proximal metacarpals
what is included in a forearm x-ray? wrist and distal distal humerus
what projections make up a forearm series? AP, lateral.
what projections make up an elbow series? AP. lateral, oblique.
what is included in a humerus radiograph? elbow and shoulder joints
what projections make up a humerus series? AP, lateral.
IR size for humerus 14 X 17

 

Position Tspine

Question Answer
When doing a T-spine, how is the cathode   positioned to overcome the “heel affect”? the cathode is positioned toward the feet   or the the thickest part of the body
On an Ap projection of the T-spine where   is the central ray going to enter? T7 or midway between the jugular notch   and the xiphiod process
Abnormal curvature of the spine in the   Lateral T-spine is called scoliosis
If you are using an AEC exposure control   system on a lateral spine without a lead or rubber mat you will do what to   the film under expose it
Abnormal increase in anterior concavity   or posterior convexity of the lateral T-spine is known as what type of curve? kyphosis
The zygapophyseal joints are shown best   in what projection of the T-spine? Oblique
The intervertebral foramen is best shown   on what projection of the T-spine Lateral
Name the opening in which the spinal cord   goes through? vertebral foramen
What method is used to see scoliosis is a   lateral projection of the T-spine Ferguson method
What is the posterior bony ring vertebrae   called vertebral notch
Where is the arms placed in the lateral   projection of the T-spine? 90 degree or right angle from the body
How do you get the back to connect with   the table on a AP projection of the T-spine? bend or flex the knees
What is the central ray angle for an AP   projection for a T-spine? perpendicular
What is the lateral T-spine breathing   technique? you use a breathing technique or normal   breathing
Where does the Central ray enter for a   lateral T-spine? posterior end of T7

 

Upper extremities MT Positioning

Question Answer
What is the patient position for   thumb,fingers, wrist, hand, forearm and elbow. Seated at the end of the table with their   effected side closest to the table; elbow flexed and arm resting on table.   Arm may be extended for AP thumb
What is the patient position for humerus,   shoulder, scapula, clavicle and AC joints? Patient is erect with back touching IR or   supine on the table.
What is the part position for a PA hand? Hand open, fingers extended with palmer   surface in contact with IR. Fingers moderately separated
What is the part position for a PA Obliue   hand? From PA position the hand is rotated   laterally rotated to place the anteromedial aspect in contact with IR
What is the part position for a lateral   hand? Ulnar aspect of hand is contact with IR   with coronal plane of hand perpendicular to IR, thumb is positioned as for a   PA thumb. Digits 2-5 are straight
What is the part position for a lateral   fan hand? Ulnar aspect of hand is contact with IR   with coronal plane of hand perpendicular to IR, thumb is positioned as for a   PA thumb. Digits 2-5 are spread out to prevent superimposition
What is the CR for a PA hand and PA   oblique hand? perpendicular to third MCP joint
What is the CR for a lateral hand and fan   lateral perpendicular to second MCP joint
What structures are seen in PA hand   radiograph? Entire hand (including fingertips),   carpus and most distal aspects of radius and ulna
What structures are seen in PA oblique   hand radiograph? No or minimal overlay of metacarpalshafts   with some superimposition of metacarpal heads and bases
What structures are seen in a lateral   hand radiograph? Superimposition of second through fifth   phalanges (fan lateral – phalanges individually demonstrated. Thumb is seen   in PA projection
What is the part position for an AP   thumb? Patient leans forward arm abducted 90   degreeswith forearm internally rotated into an exaggerated degree of   pronation. Dorsal surface of thumb is in contact with IR. Plane of palm of   hand is perpendicular to IR.
What is the part position for an PA   oblique thumb? Palmar surface of hand is in contact with   IR as for PA Projection of hand. Coronalplane of thumb will be 45-degrees to   plane of IR.
What is the part position for a lateral   thumb? Beginning with hand positioned for PA   Oblique thumb, patient flexes MCP joints 2-5 with the with the fingers   extended “tenting” hand until thumb is lateral.
What is the part position for a PA   finger? Hand is open with palmar surface in   contact with IR. Fingers are moderately separated.
What is the part position for a PA   oblique finger? From the PA, hand is rotated lsyrtsl to   place the anteromedial (palmar/ulnar) surface in contact with IR. Coronal   plane of fingers at 45-degree angle to IR
What is the part position for a lateral   finger? Medial or lateral surface of hand may be   in contact with IR, depending on which brings finger of interest nearest IR.   Finger of interest is free of superimposition of other fingers.
What is the CR for a PA finger? perpendicular to IP joint
What is the CR for a PA oblique finger? perpendicular to IP joint
What is the CR for a lateral finger? perpendicular to IP joint
What is the CR for an AP thumb? perpendicular to first MCP joint.
What is the CR for a PA oblique thumb? perpendicular to first MCP joint.
What is the CR for a lateral thumb? perpendicular to first MCP joint.
What structures are seen in AP thumb? Entire thumb and first metacarpal with   all joint spaces open and clearly visualized.
What structures are seen in PA oblique   thumb? Entire thumb and first metacarpal with   all joint spaces open and clearly visualized.
What structures are seen in a lateral   thumb? Entire thumb and first metacarpal with   all joint spaces open and clearly visualized.

 

Shoulder girdle 2 positioning

Question Answer
On AP scapula, what position maneuver   will pull the scapula laterally? Abduct arm to a right angle with the body   (toward head, swearing in position)
On AP scapula, what respiration will   obliterate the lung detail? Slow breathing, but requires longer   exposure.
What scapula border should be   demonstrated free of superimposition with ribs for AP projection? Lateral (axillary) border
What structures are seen on the AP   scapula? Acromion, clavicle, coracoid process,   glenoid cavity, lateral border of scapula, medial border and inferior angle.
True or False – The AP projection image   should demonstrate the coracoid process w/o superimposition with ribs. True
True or False – The pt. should be rotated   toward the affected side to best place the scapula paralel to the IR. False, it would be perpendicular.
For lateral scapula, what is significance   of arm placement? It determines the portion of the superior   scapula that is superimposing the humerus.
How and where is the CR directed for the   lateral projection of the scapula? CR is perpendicular to the midmedial   border of the scapula.
For Lateral scapula, how should the   affected arm be placed to best show acromion and coracoid processes? Flex the elbow behind back on posterior   thorax. (prevents humerus from overlapping scapula)
True or False – The lateral projection   should demonstrate the medial and lateral borders superimposed. True
True or False – The lateral projection   should demonstrate the scapular body free of superimposition of the ribs. True
True or False – The acromion process and   the inferior angle should demonstrated in the lateral projection. True
PA oblique projection,Upright, RAO or LAO   (less OID), rotate 45-60 degees to the IR Scapula Y
What is the Lorenz and Lilienfeld method? Starts in lateral recumbent, affected   side down, CR enters medial (vertebral) border.
AP Oblique projection and CR placement? Rotate away from affected side 35   degrees, LPO to see right side, RPO to see left side, CR: perpendicular to   the lateral (axillary) border.
What position of the scapula demonstrates   the coracoid process w/o superimposition with ribs? AP projection
What bones make up the Y view? Acromion process, coracoid process and   body of scapula.
Most used view for the AC articulation? Pearson Method – AP projection, w/ and   w/o weights.
The four important things about the AP   projection for AC joint? 1. Upright 2. Bilateral 3. 72″ SID,   4. 2 views w and w/o weights for non fracture.
On acromioclavicular projection which   view is best for improved recorded detal? PA axial Oblique, reduces OID.
On the Pearson Method which is best   supine or upright? Upright, recumbent tends to reduce   dislocation of AC joint.
True or False-To demonstrate AC joints,   both AC joints should be imaged simultaneously. True
True or False – The CR should be directed   to the affected AC joint for each image? True
On a patient with wide shoulders, what   procedure is used to view the AC joints? 2 separate views of each AC joint.
What is the Alexander Method? For AC joint, AP axial, one at a time. CR   to the coracoid process 15 degrees cephalad.
What is the purpose of the hanging   sandbags to each wrist? Shows separation of the AC joint.
What is shown in the AP clavicle? Acromion, AC joint, Clavicle, Superior   angle, steroclavicular joint & coracoid process.
What level of the patient should the   cassette be centered for AP or PA projection of clavicle? Center clavicle to midline of the grid.
For AP or PA projection of clavicle, what   breathing instructions are best? Suspend
Which produce the best recorded detail on   clavicle, AP or PA? PA, closer to the IR, reducing OID.
How much of the clavicle should be   demonstrated on AP or PA? Entire clavicle should be centered on   image.
True or False – The AP or PA projection   should show the entire clavicle free of superimposition with other bony   structures? False, the medial half of the clvicle is   superimposed with the thorax.
How many degrees and direction of CR on   the following clavicle: AP axial, pt. supine? PA axial pt. prone? AP axial pt. supine: 15-20 degrees   cephalad. PA axial pt prone: 15-30 degrees caudad.
Which projection causes clavicle to   appear horizontal? AP axial
What positioning considerations determine   how much angle for Clavicle AP or PA axial? Body habitus: hypersthenic – angle less   15-20 degrees, hyposthenic – angle more up to 30 degrees.
What breathing technique is best for AP   axial projection of clavicle? Suspend after full inspiration.
On AP axial of clavicle can it be free   from all structures? NO
Only reason for a PA projection of clavicle? Reduces OID, improving recorded detail   which is definition, sharpness and resolution.

 

Chapter 1-3 notes- Positioning

Question Answer
What are the 3 type of muscular tissue? smooth, cardiac, striated
what is a RA and a RPA? radiologist assistant and radiology   practitioner assistant.
identifications of radiographs what are   they? Date, R and L markers, patient name, and   other identifications, institution name.
how far should you usually be for a chest   X-ray? 72in
Where to you shield? gonads
What is a grid and what is it made of? alternating strips of lead and aluminum   that reduce scatter radiation.
where do you place the grid? between the patient and the IR.
when do you use a grid? only when kVp is greater than 60 or 9-10   cm of thickness.
collimator box-like structure attached to x-ray tube   with lead shutters that limit x-ray beam to a specific area.
what are the primary factors when using   technique? kvp,mAs,SID,film,speed.
does kvp decrease or increase for old age decrease
does kvp decrease or increase for   pneumothorax decrease
does kvp decrease or increase for   emyphysema decrease
does kvp decrease or increase for   emaciation decrease
does kvp decrease or increase for   degenerative arthritis decrease
does kvp decrease or increase for atrophy decrease
does kvp decrease or increase for   pneumonia increase
does kvp decrease or increase for pleural   effusion increase
does kvp decrease or increase for   hydrocephalus increase
does kvp decrease or increase for   enlarged heart increase
does kvp decrease or increase for edema increase
does kvp decrease or increase for ascites increase
disinfection kills it
antiseptics inhibits growth.
True or false you want the object closer   to the IR? True
to reduce magnification from OID you   would? Increase SID
when SID increase Recoreded detail? Decreases
shuttering is used to produce black background on a   image for a DR.
inspiration depresses diaphargm and expands the lungs
expiration expands the diaphargm and shortens the   lungs
What is a compensating filiter used for? to even out densities on a object of   varing difference.
wedge filiter what area is it used for? areas of the body where density varies   gradually. i.e. thoraic spine, nasal bone, abdomen, and hip AP.
Trough filiter what area is it used for? best used for areas of the body where the   center area is much greater than the outside area. i.e. chest
Boomerang filiter what area is it used   for? designed to confrom to the shaped of the   shoulder but can also be used for facial bones.
how many bones in the body? 206
how many bones in the hand? 27
how many saddle joints in the hand? 1
what are the two body regions that   seperate the body? axial and apendicular
axial is the. spine and the skull
apendicular is the. shoulders, upper and lower extremities,   and its connection points.
compact bone is. strong dense outer layer of the bone
spongy bone is inner dense portion of the bone
trabeculae is network of interconnecting spaces filled   with yellow and red marrow.
periosteum is it covers all boney surface except the   articular surface
endosteum is tissue lining the medullary cavities of   the bones.
ossification development and formation of bones.
long bone portion is called diaphysis
epiphyesal plates is where growth occurs and it is common   to get a fracture there.
how do bones grow? outward
Arthology is study of joints or articulations between   bones
2 types of joints functional and structual.
structural joints fibrous and cartilaginous, synovial,   gliding, pivot, ellipsoid, saddle, and ball and socket.
fuctional joints synarthroses, amphiarthroses, diarthroses
projection is. the path of the CR as it enters the   patient and exits it.
anteroposterior perpendicular to CR enters the anterior   body and exits posterior body.
axial projection longitudinal angulation of cr;angled tube   10 degrees or more
tangential CR is directed toward the outer margin of   curved surface to profile a body part just under the surface and projection   is free of superimposition.
lateral perpendicular on either side, exits   opposite side, and lateral position refers to the side that is on the IR.
transthoracic projection used for shoulders
oblique is enters the body at an angled position   usuallyt 45 degrees
RPO right posterior oblique to IR with AP   projection
True projection indicates body part must be placed in   anatomic position
in profile means outlined view of structure that had a   distictive shape, and not superimposed. usally on the side.
Position specific placement of the body part in   relation to the table or IR
Upright position erect
Seated position upright position while seated
recumbent laying down in any position
supine laying on back
prone laying on belly
trendelengburg supine position with feet higher than   head
fowler supine with head higher than feet
sims recumbent laying left anterior side with   left leg extended slightly bent and right knee and thigh bent
lithotomy supine knees and hips flexed and thighs   are abducted and rotated laterally
decubitus the tube is crossed table with CR   parallel to the floor where position is closet to the IR. IP is crossed   tabled
Lordotic position having patient lean backward while in   upright position, so that shoulders are in contact with IR. The tube is not   angled but when it enters the body with will be angeled.
view describes the body part seen by the IR
method describes the specific projection that   was developed
Stomach and liver and intestine are in   this regions. epigastric, and left hypocondrium.
the bladder is in this region hypogastric
C1 is in this area mastoid
C2-C3 is in this area Gonion
C3-C4 are in this area Hyoid bone
C5 thyroid cartilage
C7,T1 Vertebra process
T1 2 inches above juglar notch
T2-T3 juglar notch
T4-T5 angle of sternum
T7 inferior angle of scapula
T9-T10 bottom lower portion of costal margins or   the ribs
L2-L3 inferior costal margion….naval area
L4-L5 iliac crest
S1-S2 iliac supine superior
coccyx pubis symphysis, and greater trochanters.
Sthenic 50% colon spread even,gall bladder   centered upper abdomen, stomach high upper left
Hyposthenic 35% in middle between sthenic and   asthenic
Asthenic 10% everything is in lower region or in   pelvis area.
Hypersthenic 5% everyting is spread out in the body,   gall bladder is high and outside area of body.
open/compound bones spilts and protrudes out the body
compress in vertebrae and push down
simple bone is split but dont protrude out the   body
greenstick broken one side but still together like   when you bend a stick that dosnt break
transverse in a horizontal angle
Oblique/spiral in a spiral angle
comminuted is broken in many fragments in the body
impacted wedges it self in other bone
posterior fat pad lies on the posterior humerous can only   see it when there is a facture to the bone and fluid pushes it out
anterior fat pad is on the anterior side of humerous seen   on a lateral elbow
supinator fat pad anterior portion of radius/forearm can   see on a later elbow
Scaphoid is also called a navicular but there is also a navicular   tarsal
lunate is also called a semilunar
triquetrum is also called a triquetral, cuneiform, or triangular
trapezium greater multangular
trapezoid lesser mutangular
capitate Os magnum
hamate unciform
How many bones in the apendicular   skeleton? 126
the axial plane splits the body into what   portions superior and inferior
two examples when we would use a wedge   filter AP toracic spine and AP Hip
ureters are in what body cavity? abdominal cavity
what is the external body land mark for   lvl c2-c3 gonion
what body habitis makes up 5% of the body   population? Hypersthenic
give and example of a long bone? humerous,femur, phalanges
trochlear notch is located where? Ulna
if there is an injury in the elbow what   will fat pat will be visible and what type of projection? posterior fat pad, and it will be visible   in a later projection when there is a fracture to the bone leakage will push   it out of the olecranon fossa.
What is the CR for an oblique elbow? perpendicular to the elbow joint
where is the capitulum located? lateral side on humerous
what joints are open in a oblique of the   5th digit? PIP’s and DIP’s
What is the CR for a lateral hand 2nd MCP and it is perpendicular
what X-ray is done for foreign bodies in   the hand? lateral in extension
what is in profile when in ulnar   deviation? scaphiod
what is superimposed in a lateral elbow? Coronoid process is superimposed by the   radial tuberosity and in the humerous the epicondyles are.
what is your angle and SID if your doing   a stechter? 20 degrees and 36 SID

 

LGI Part 2- Positioning

Question Answer
In order to insure that the entire length   of the small intestine is filled with barium, delayed images should be taken   until the barium is seen within the: proximal colon
The desireable properties of barium   sulfate used for visualization of the lower gastroinestinal tract: ability to uniformly coat the intestinal   wall, absence of foam forming elements
Radiographic images of the lower   intestinal tract are obtained folloing the introduction of liquid barium   sulfate suspension. The lateral and Chassard-Lapine projections are most   commonly used in the evaluation of the: rectosigmoind region
Normal saline may be used instead of tap   water for mixing of a barium sulfate suspension to help prevent: hypoglycemia in older adults during a BE
Radio graphic procedures would best be   able to assist in a suspected diagnosis on Crohns ? barium enema or small bowel series
during the radiographic evaluation of the   large intestine using barium contrast agent, the AP oblique projections are   most commonly employed to improve the visualization of the: Right and left colic flexures
The use of high density barium contrast   agent during imaging of a large intestine in combination with air has proven   to be beneficial in the evaluation of: intestinal polyps
Which part of the small intestine makes   up 3/5 of its entirety? ileum
Which part of the large intestine is   located highest, or most superior in the abdomen? left colic flexure
Which of the following structures is NOT   considered to be part of the main colon? cecum
Which part of the large intestine has the   widest diameter? cecum
Which part of the colon has the greatest   amount of potential movement? transverse colon
What is the term for the three bands of   muscle that pull the large intestine into pouches? taeniae coli
Which part of the colon will most likely   be filled filled with ait with the patient in the prone position? Ascending colon, decending colon and   rectum
The circular staircase, or jerringbone   pattern, is a common radiographic sign for a ileus True
Which condition produce the cobblestone   or string sign? Regional enteritis ( Chron’s disease)
term used to describe double contrast   small bowel procedure? enteroclysis
Avg adult, amt of barium ingested is one   16 oz for a small bowel series? True
The tip of the catheter is advanced to   the ______ during an enteroclysis duodenojejunal flexure
The tapered or corkscrew radiographic   sign is often seen with: volvulus
Which radiographic sign is frequently   seen with carcinoma of the colon? napkin ring or apple core
Which of the following is classified as   an irritant laxative? castor oil

 

Upper GI positioning

Question Answer
What is the approx length of the   alimentary canal? 30 ft
What makes up the alimentary canal? esophagus, stomach, small and large   intestine
What are the four layers of the   alimentary canal? fibrous, muscular, submucosal, mucosal
What is the expanded portion of the   terminal esophagus called? cardiac antrum
What is the moscle controlling the   opening of the stomach and deuodenm? Pyloric sphincter
How long does it take barium to go   through the alimentary canal? 24 hrs
What are the different types of contrast   used? air, barium sulfate, gastrografin
Which body habitus has a horizontal   stomach? hypersthenic
Which bobdy habitus has a vertical   stomach? Asthenic
Which body habitus comprises 50% of the   population? Sthenic
Which body habitus comprises 35% of the   population? Hyposthenic
What are the functions of the stomach? stores food breakdown of food
What is the prep for a patient with an AM   exam time? NPO after midnight
What is the prep for a patient with a PM   exam time? NPO 8 hrs
What are the routienly used methods for a   stomach exam? single – contrast, double contrast
What are the portions of the small   intestine? Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What order does food flow through the   small intestine? Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What are the physical characteristics of   the deuodenum? short, and wide / 8-10″ long
What projection and body position shows   the bulb and loop in profile? PA Oblique, RAO
What is the term for the contraction   waves that is produced by the intestine during digestion? peristalsis
What is the largest gland in the body? liver
What are the functions of the   gallbladder? Store and secrete bile
What are the functions of the exocrine   cells of pancreas? secretes and produces pancreatic juice
What is the most common contrast medium? barium sulfate
What is used to record fluoro images? Tv, video reorder
What respiration phase is used for upper   GI studies? suspended expiration
What is the advantage of the double   contrast study? Small lesions are less easlity obsured   and mucosal lining clearly visualized
Common bile duct and pancreatic duct   unite to form? Hepatopancreatic ampulla
What attaches the small intestine? mesentery
What opening inside the deuodenum where   the pancreatic enzymes and bile enter? major duodenal papilla
What drug is used to relax the GI tract   before double contrast study? glucagon or other anticholinergic meds
What body position is recommended for an   oblique view of the esophagus? RAO
What body rotation is used for an oblique   view of the esophagus? 35-40 deg
What general body position is used for   esophagus exam? prone/recumbent
What are the advantages of using a   recumbent body position for an esophagus exam? shows variceal distentions of esophageal   veins because varices are best filled by flow against gravity
What are the essential projections for   the esophagus? AP/PA, AP/PA Oblique, Lateral
In the lateral which plane is centered to   the IR? Midcoronal
What is the sequence for an esophogram   for esophageal varices? Exhale, swallow barium, aviod inspiration
All esophagus projections, the top of the   IR is positioned where? At the level of the mouth
The esophagus is posterior to _____. trachea
How much lower is the IR for an upright   view of the stomach? 3-6″ lower
Which projection requires a positioning   sponge? AP Oblique
Projection that best demostrates the   fundus? AP Oblique LPO
Projection that best demostrates anterior   and posterior surfaces? Lateral
Projection that best demostrates   diaphrogmatic herniation? AP Trendelenburg
AP which positions will best dempstrate   the retrogastic portion of the duodenum and jejunum? supine and trendenburg
Folds in the stomach are called? Rugae
What opening joins the stomach and   esophagus? Cardiac orfice
What opening joins the small intestine   and stomach? pyloric orifice
PA projection of the stomach best   demonstrates_____________ Barium-filled stomach duodenal bulb
The stomach joins the esophagus at which   junction? Esophagogastric junction
What are the main subdivions of the   stomach? Cardia, fundus, body, pyloric portion
What is the lateral border of the stomach   called? greater curveature
Where will barium gravitate to in the   prone position? body and pylours
For a PA projection of the stomach and   duodenum a 10 x 12 cassette is centered to what plane? Sagittal
For a PA projection of the stomach and   duodenum centered to what level? L1 – L2
For a PA projection of the stomach and   duodenum a 14 x 17 cassette is centered to what plane? sagittal
For a PA oblique projection of the   stomach and duodenum what is the body rotation? 40-70 deg
Which body habitus requires the most   rotation? hyperstentic
For the stomach and duodenum the AP   oblique avg body rotation is? 45 deg
For the stomach the AP oblique what is   the range of body rotation ? 30 – 60 deg
The duodenum joins the jejunum at a sharp   curve called? duodebijejunal flexure
What is the functions of the spleen? produces lymphocytes and stores and   removes dead or dying blood cells
Specific radiographic exam of billiary   ducts is termed _____ ? Cholegraphy
What are the accescory glands of   digestion? Salivary glands, liver, gallbladder,   pancreas
What is another word for swallowing? Deglutition
Common passageway for both food and air? Pharnyx
When food enters the stomach and combines   with gastric secretions its known as_______. Chyme

 

Ch 8 Vertebralcolumn Positioning

Question Answer
Cspine Ap Projection open mouth   (alber-schonberg method) TB 30″ SID Center at the level of   axis Using upper incisor and mastiod tip perpendicular to IR 8×10
CSpine Ap Axial TB or UB 15-20 Cephalic @the level of C4   8×10
CSpine lateral UB 10×12 60-72 SID At the level of C4
Cspine ap axial oblique (rpo/lpo) tb or ub 60-72 sid 15-20 cephalic @ level   of C4 (inverv. foramina farthest from IR)
Cspine PA axial obliqe (rao/Lao) tb or ub 60-72 sid 15-20 Caudal @ level   of C4 (interv. foramina closest to IR)
Cervicothracic region :lateral Projection   (swimmers) 10×12 TB or UB At c7-t1 interspace   Horizontal beam or 3-5 caudal 5-15 for broad shoulders
Thoracic Spine: Ap projection TB,UB at level of t7 perpendicular IR   14×17
Tspine: lateral Projection TB, UB @ level of T7 centered posterior   half of thorax
Lspine AP projection UB, TB @L4( level of crest 48in SID *if   Lspine only @ L3 (1 1/2 inches above crest)
Lumbar spine: lateral Projection UB, TB @ L4 angel 5 caudal for men 8 for   women if no sponge used
Lspine -Spot Tb @2″posterior ASIS and 1 1/2   inferior to illiac crest 5 degree angle for men 8 for women
Lspine ap oblique Projection (rpo/Lpo) tb or UB 45 obliquity 2′ medial elevated   ASIS and 1 1/2 above iliac crest joints closest to IR
lspine Pa obliqe projection (rao/lao) Tb Ub 45 obliquity 1 1/2 above iliac   crest and 2″ lateral of spions process on elevated side
Lumbosacral Junction And sacroiliac   Joints: ap axial projection

 

Positioning Best Demos

Question Answer
Larynx Lateral Cervical For Soft Tissue
Trachea, Diaphrgmatic Domes, The Heart and Arotic   Knob PA Chest
Pleural Effusion Decubitus Chest
Pneumothorax PA Chest with Expiration
Apices without Clavicular Superimposition Lordotic Chest
Interlobar Fissure, Differentiate the Lobes, and   Localize Pulmonary Lesions Lateral Chest
Right Lung, The Heart, Descending Aorta, and the   Aortic Arch LAO Chest
Left Lung, Left Atrium, Anterior portion of apex   of the left ventricle, and right retrocardiac space RAO Chest
Hilum Lateral Chest
Air-Fluid Levels, and accumulations of   intrapertioneal air under diaphragm (when PT can stand) Erect Abdomen
Air-Fluid levels, and Accumulations of   Intrapertioneal air under diaphragm (When PT cannot Stand) Decubitus Abdomen
Calification of aorta or other vessels, aorta   aneurysm, and umbilical Hernias Lateral Abdomen
Bowel Obstruction, Neoplasms, Calcification,   Ascites AP Abdomen
Pisiform, Hamulus of Hamate Carpal Canal or Tunnel View
Scaphoid Ulnar Deviation
Olecranon Process Lateral Elbow
Trochlear Notch Lateral Elbow
Elbow Fat Pads Lateral Elbow
Pronator Fat Pads Lateral Wrist
Anterior/Posterior Fracture Displacement in hand Lateral Hand in Extension/ Flexion
Radial Head and Neck, and Capitulum of Humerus External Oblique Elbow
Coronoid Process of Ulna and Trochlea in Profile Internal Oblique Elbow
Greater Tubercle of Humerus Visualized in Profile AP Shoulder with External Rotation of Humerus
Lesser Tubercle visualized in full Profile AP Shoulder with internal Rotation of   Humerus-Lawrence Method
Scapulohumeral Joint Grashey Method-West Point Method
Coracid Process of Shoulder Lawrence(Axillary) Method-Scapular “Y”
Intertubercular Grooce Fisk-Bicipital Groove
Scapular Fracture Lateral Scapula
Dislocation of Humerus Scapular Y Lateral-Inferosuperior Axial   Projection
Posterior Scapulohumeral Dislocations Garth Method
Supraspinatus Outlet Neer Method
Condition of the Longitudinal Arch of the Foot Lateral Weight Bearing Foot
Heel Lateral-Axial
Talus AP Mortise
Patella Free of Superimposition Lateral-Sunrise Patella
Intercondylar Fossa Tunnel
Proximal Tibiofubar Joint Internal Oblique Knee

 

Positioning c-spine

Question Answer
The body rotation for the PA oblique   projection? 45 degrees
The expiration phase for a lateral   projection is Suspended expiration
What is the central ray angle for the AP   Axial Projection? 15 to 20 degrees
What is the name for the first cervical   vertebrae? atlas
For the cervical spine a lateral swimmers   technique is used to demonstrate what? C7-T1
What do we call the outer part that   surrounds the intervertebral disk? Annulus Fibrosus
The odontoid process is part which   vertebrae axis or C2
The body rotation for the AP oblique   projection is? 45 degrees
What is the center part of the   intervertebral disk called? nucleus pulposus
If I can not get the odontiod by open   mouth what is another way to get the projection we need fuchs and dens
The zygapophyseal joints of the cervical   spine is clearly demonstrated in what projection? Lateral
The PA Axial Oblique projection does it   show the intervertebral being closest to the IR or farthest from the IR? Closest to the IR
For the Oblique projection where does the   central ray enter? C4
The openings in the cervical vertebra or   the transmission of the arteries and veins are called? The transverse foramen
What is the name of the second cervical   vertebra? axis
For the swimmers technique what is the   external landmark that we use for the central ray entrance? 2 inches above jugular notch
Where does the central ray enter for   hyperflexion and hyperextension projection of the cervical spine? C4
Describe where the vertebral column is   located inside the body. midsagital plane: posteriorly part of the   trunk
The central ray angle for the AP Axial   oblique is Cephalad
The vertebral notches that are on the   vertebra if put together form what? intervertebral foramen
The intervertebral foramens are demonstrated   on what projection? Obliques
The superior and inferior articulating   processes and facets form what when they are together? Zygapophyseal joints
The vertebra prominence is the other name   for what? C7
Which projections are considered   functional studies of the cervical spine? Hyperflexion and hyperextension
The central ray angle for the PA axial   obliques is directed in which direction? caudad
Whats the other name for a slipped disk Herniated nucleus pulposus
The central ray angle for a PA axial   oblique? 15 degrees caudad
Patients may arrive in the emergency room   for trauma cervical spine on a spine board which projection is taken first   before removal of the board Lateral with a horizontal beam
Because of the increase in the OID the   SID is increases to 60 to 72 inches
For the AP Axial where does the central   enter C4
for the fuchs method of the odontiod   process is this a lateral, oblique, PA or AP projection? AP
On a routine projection of a c-spine the   aclusial plane should be what to the IR in an upright projection perpendicular
The AP axial oblique shows intervertebral   foramen the closest to the IR or farthest from the IR? Farthest for the IR
The central ray angle for the AP Axial is   directed in which direction? cephalad
For the lateral projection of the   cervical spine the midcoronal plane is what to the IR perpendicular
All cervical vertebra contain how many   foramen 3 (2 transverse and vertebral)
what is the largest foramen called the vertebral foramen

 

Positioning chpt7 pelvis

Question Answer
What two bony points must be located in   order to do a pelvis projection? ASIS and pubis symphsis
The Ilia articulates with the sacrum   posteriorly at what? the SI joint
How many deg should the feet and lower   limbs be internally rotated for an AP pelvis? 15-20
Central ray angle for AP pelvis enters   where? 2 “ superior of the pubis symphsis
What is shown in profile if the lower   limbs are in the correct position for the AP pelvis? Greater trochanters
What method will demonstrate the femoral   necks in the AP oblique projection? Modified cleaves
AP oblique femoral neck, modified cleaves   method, what angle is put on the central ray? 0 deg perpendicular
How much are the thighs adducted for the   AP oblique (modified cleaves method) projection of the femoral necks? 45 deg
What is the degree of angle for a   bilateral hip? Unilateral hip projection? bilateral 25-45 and unilateral 45   modified cleaves method
Which plane should be positioned to the   midline of the grid for an AP of hip? 2” medial to the ASIS Sagittal
How many degrees is the lower limb and   foot internally rotated for AP hip? 10-20
Central ray angle for an AP projection of   the hip? perpendicular
What method demonstrates the hip in a   lateral projection? Longstein-Hickey method
What method shows the hip in an   axiolateral position? Danelius-Miller
What is the name of the cross table hip   projection? Axiolateral projection
How many degrees rotation of the foot and   lower limb are required for the Danelius-Miller axiolateral projection? 15-20
What are some of the things needed for   the axiolateral projection danelius-miller? sandbags,ect
For the Danielius –miller projection,   what direction is the central ray for an axiolateral projection of the hip? Perpendicular to the long axis of the   femoral neck and perpendicular to the IR
For the Danelius-miller projection, how   is the IR positioned? Parallel to the long axis of the femoral   necks, parallel to the ASIS
What is the respiration phase for   axiolateral projection of the hip? Suspended respiration
What is the respiration phase for AP   projection of the pelvis? Suspended respiration
Which of the following rami is part of   the pubis? Superior , inferior
What size IR and which position is used   for an AP projection of the hip? 10×12 lengthwise
What is an importantly used reference   point for the hip? ASIS
Strongest bone in the body? Femur
In the anatomical position, the body of   the femur is angled how many degrees? 10
How far apart should the heels be placed   to internally rotate the lower limbs for an AP pelvis? 8-10
Where do you center the IR for an AP   pelvis? Midway between the ASIS and the pubis   symphsis
Where is the central ray directed for an   AP oblique projection of the femoral neck? 1” superior to the pubis symphsis
What best describes the female pelvis? Oval inlet and wide outlet
The SI joint is what kind of joint? Synovial gliding
Malformation of the acetabulum causing   displacement of the femoral head is called what? Congenital hip dysplasia
Flattening of the femoral head owing to   vascular interruption? Legg-calve-perthes disease
In relation to the midsagittal plane, the   SI joints angle how much? 25-30
Body is placed in what angle for an AP   oblique projection judet method of the acetabulum? 45
Central ray angle for AP oblique judet method   of the acetabulum? 2” inferior to the ASIS
Where does the central ray enter the   point for AP hip? 2.5 “ distal to midline of the ASIS and   pubic symphsis
What is the recommended collimated field   size for an AP hip? 10×12
On axiolateral projection of the hip,   which of the following best describes the direction of the central ray? Perpendicular to the long axis of the   femoral neck, enters mid thigh and passes through the femoral neck about 2 ½   inches below the point of intersection of the localization lines
Internal oblique position for the AP   oblique projection judet method demonstrates what? Iliopubic column, and the posterior rim   of the acetabulum
External rotation for the AP oblique   projection judet method demonstrates what? Ilioishial column and the anterior rim of   the acetabulum
What is the purpose of having the head   and neck of the greater trochanter on the same projection? To be able to compare them better
What makes up the hip joint? Ilium, pubis, and the ischium
Where should the IR be centered in an AP   hip radiograph? Perpendicular to the femoral neck
What type of joint is the hip joint? Ball and socket synovial joint
Which of the following projections can be   performed with the use of a compensating filter? Axiolateral projection
The internal oblique position using the   Judet method is for a suspected fracture of which column? Iliopubic Column
This is rheumatoid arthritis variant   involving the SI joints and spine: Ankylosing Spondylitis
Malformation of the acetabulum causing   displacement of the femoral head: Congenital Hip Dysplasia
Flattening of the femoral head owing to   vascular interruption: Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
Form of arthritis marked by progressive   cartilage deterioration in synovial joints and vertebrae: Osteoarthritis (Degenerative Joint   Disease)
Increased density of atypically soft   bone: Osteopetrosis
Loss of bone density: Osteoporosis
Thick, soft bone marked by bowing and   fractures: Paget Disease
Proximal portion of femur dislocated from   distal portion at the proximal epiphysis: Slipped Epiphysis
Malignant tumor arising from cartilage   cells: Chondrosarcoma
Malignant neoplasm of plasma cells   involving the bone marrow and causing destruction of the bone: Multiple Myeloma

 

Positioning for shoulder comp-internal, external

Question Answer
what is the insertion point for the supraspinatus   muscle? greater tubercle
what is the insertion point for the infraspinatus   muscle? greater tubercle
what is the insertion point for the subscapularis   muscle? lesser tubercle
what position should the arm be in for the   external rotation shoulder? hand supinated, placing the epicondyles parallel   to the IR
what position should the arm be in for a neutral   rotation shoulder? palm of hand facing hips, placing the epicondyles   45 degrees to the plane of the IR
what position should the arm be in for an   internal rotation shoulder? posterior aspect of the hand touching the hip,   placing the epicondyles perpendicular to the plane of the IR.
what is visualized during an external rotation   shoulder? greater tubercle in profile laterally
what is visualized during a neutral rotation   shoulder? posterior aspect of the greater tubercle
what should be visualized during an internal   rotation shoulder? proximal humerus true lateral, lesser tubercle in   profile medially
how much is the tube angle for an outlet   shoulder? 10-15 degrees caudad
where does the CR enter for an outlet shoulder? superior aspect of the humeral head
what is the evaluation criteria for an internal   rotation shoulder? lesser tubercle in profile medially, outline of   greater tubercle superimposing humeral head
what is the evaluation criteria for an external   rotation shoulder? humeral head in profile, greater tubercle in   profile laterally, scapulohumeral joint with slight overlap of humeral head   over glenoid, outline of lesser tubercle between humeral head and greater   tubercle.
what is the evaluation criteria for a neutral   rotation shoulder? greater tubercle partially superimposes the   humeral head, humeral head in partial profile, slight overlap of humeral head   on glenoid fossa

 

Positioning for skull and facial bones

Question Answer
What is the IR for lateral projection of the   skullp 10x 12
what plane is parrallel to the IR for lateral   projection of the skull mid saggital
What line is parrallel to the IR forlateral   projection of the skull IOML
Respiration of skullW suspend
where does the cr enter for lateral projection of   the skull 2 ” SUPERIOR TO EAM
Whatis seen in profile in the lateral   prheojection of the skull a) mastoid b)sella turcica c) clinoid process sella turcica
For a trauma lateral skull do a dorsal decubitus in supine lateral
The PA axial position is called the ___ method caldwell
what two parts of the face are placed on the   table for the PA axial position of skull nose and forehead
for the caldwell what line is perp to IR OML
central ray exits the ______ fro the caldwell nasion
for thhee PA projection of the skull when the   frontal lobe is of interest the cr exits at the nasion
angle for the caldwell is 15 derees caudad
to show the superior orbitaql fissures direct the   centrqal rqay through the ______ at an angle of mid orbits 20 -25 degrees caudad
to show the rotundum forqamina in a pa axial   projection, central ray direts to the ______ at an angle of _________ nasion, 25 30
where shold the petrous ridges be seen in a   caldwell projection lower 1/3 of orbits
if you angles 10 degrees then the petrous ridges   would be where they would be half way in orbit
if you angle more the petrous ridges go down below the orbits
what is perp with IR for the caldwe3ll oml
what two strx of skull shold be shown in pa axail   projecti crista galli and superior orbital fissure
the AP axial projection is called the ___ method towns
what is perp to Ir for townes method OML
If you want the IOML to bw perp to the IR them   use a ___ angle for a ap axial projectionof the skull 7degrees
what is cr for townes rmethod 30 degrrees caudal
what shold be symmetric on the townes method of   skull petrous ridges
what two structures shhe ould be in the foramen   magnum for a townes method of the skull dorsum sella and posterior clinoid process
the dorsum sella looks like a ____ tail in the   foramen magnum whale
if the whale tale is above the foramen magnum   then you a) havent angled enough b) anglesd too much didnt angle enough
Parietoorbital oblique projection is called the   ___ method rhese
for the parietoorbital obliue proection, place   the ________ on the table zygomsa, nose and chin
the midsaggital plane should form an angle of   ____ to the IR 53 deg
the central ray enter where for the   parietoorbital oblique projection 1 ” superior and posterior to the tea
where does the cr exit fo r the parietoorbital   oblique projection affected orbit closest to ir
where is the optic foramen located for the parietoorbital   oblique projection of skull inferior and lateral quadrqant of the projected   orbit
for the parietoorbital oblique projection the   optic canal end is seen on end
what is perpindicualr to the IR for the parieto   oblique projection of the skull AML
if its lateral deviation then its ? a) incorrect   rotation b) incorrexrt angle AML incorrect rotation
if its longitudinal deviation then a) incorrect   rotation b) incorrexrt angle AML incorrect angle AML
the messy side of the parietoorbital oblique projection   is thed medial side the sinuses
the orbitoparietal oblique projectiion is called   the ________ metho reverse rhese method
what is the ir size for the lateral projection of   the facial bones 8×10
what is parralles with the IR for the lateral   projectionof the facial bones IOML
whats perp with the IR fo the lateral   projectionof the facial bones Interpupillar line
there should be no rotation of ________ for the   lateral projectionof the facial bones sela turcica
where does central ray enter for the lateral   projectionof the facial bones alfway between the outer canthus and EAM
collimate down to a ______ for the lateral   projectionof the facial bones 6×10
what bone should be in the center for the lateral   projectionof the facial bones zygomatic bone
what should be almost superimposed fo rthe   lateral projectionof the facial bones mandibula rami
the _______ should be superimposed for the   lateral projectionof the facial bones orbital roofs
the waters method is _________ projection paritoancanthial projection of the facial bones
what do you place on the IR for the   paritoancanthial projection of the facial bones tip of chin
the nose is about ___ inches in from to IR for   the paritoancanthial projection of the facial bones 3/4
OML form a ____ degree angle with IR for the   paritoancanthial projection of the facial bones 37
___ is perpindicual fo rthe paritoancanthial   projection of the facial bones MSP
the _____ is almost perpindicular to the IR for   the paritoancanthial projection of the facial bones MML
center the IR at the level of the _____ for the   paritoancanthial projection of the facial bones acancthion
the waters method shows what three structures orbits, maxillae and zygomtic acrches
where are the petrous ridges projected for the   paritoancanthial projection of the facial bones immidiately below the maxillary sinus
the PA axial proojection of the facial bone is   also called the waters and it is exactly the same as the waters except use an 8×10 lw
Forthe lateral projection of the nasal bonesh   what plane is perp with the IR interpupillary line
for the lateral projection of the nasal bones   what size cassete 8×10 cw for two exposures on the same cassette
w is perp with the IR fo rthe lateral projection   of the nasal bones interpupilaary line
wht is parrallel with tthe IR for the lateral   projection of the nasal bones IOML
what two strucxtures are demonstrated on the   lateral projection of the nasal bone anterior nasal spine and frontonasal suture
the smv stands for submentovertical projection of the zygomatic   arches
what touches the IR for the submentovertical   projection of the zygomatic arches apex of the head
what is parralles with the IR or the   submentovertical projection of the zygomatic arches IOML
what plane is perp with the submentovertical   projection of the zygomatic archees msp
for the submentovertical projection of the   zygomatic arches, there shold be bilatera symetric images of the zygomatic arches
where does cr enter for submentovertical   projection of the zygomatic arches mid throat and 1 inch posterior to the outer   canthis
how much do you angle for the submentovertical   projection of the zygomatic arches you dont know it depends on how mch they can tilt   toheir head has to be perp to the IOML
wht is parrallel with tthe IR for the lateral   projection of the nasal bones IOML
what is parralles with the IR or the   submentovertical projection of the zygomatic arches IOML
what plane is perp with the submentovertical   projection of the zygomatic archees msp
for the submentovertical projection of the   zygomatic arches, there shold be bilatera symetric images of the zygomatic arches
where does cr enter for submentovertical   projection of the zygomatic arches mid throat and 1 inch posterior to the outer   canthis
how much do you angle for the submentovertical   projection of the zygomatic arches you dont know it depends on how mch they can tilt   toheir head has to be perp to the IOML
how do you position the head? rotate msp 15 degrees toward affeted side tilt   head 15 degrees away fromthe affected side
center the _________ to the film for the   tangential zygomatic arch zygomatic arch
what is the transverse centering for the pa   projetoin of the mandible level of lips
what are threeparts to the mandible body, symphysis ramus
where does the cr exit for the PA projection of   the mandible acanthion
For the axiolateral oblique projectoin of the   mandible, which part is of interest when the rami is parrallel and the chin   is extended and head in a true lateral position ramus body symphysis ramus
what is the central ray angulation for the   axiolateral oblique projectoin of the mandible? 25 degrees cephalad
where should the central ray be directed for the   axiolateral oblique projectoin of the mandible to the part of the mandible of interest
when the patyients head is rotated 30 degrees   toward the IR the the part of interest of the mandible for a axiolateral   oblique projectoin of the mandible is the? body
when the patyients head is rotated 45 degrees   toward the IR the the part of interest of the mandible for a axiolateral   oblique projectoin of the mandible is the? symphysis
what line is perp to the IR for the axiolateral   oblique projectoin of the mandible? interpupillary line
the goal of the axiolateral oblique projectoin of   the mandible is to place the area of interest on the mandible ________ with   the IR parrallel
for the axiolateral oblique projectoin of the   mandible central ray wil exit ______ area of interes
for the axiolateral oblique projectoin of the   mandible when the ramus is of interest, the cr enters at the unaffected side of gonion
For the AP axial projection (towns medthod) the   transverse centering is midway between the tMJ and gonione
what are the 4 paranasal sinuses frontal sethmoidal sphenoidal maxillary
what is the large3st sinus maxiallary
what is most posterior sinus sphenoidal sinus
what is most superior sinus frontal
what is 2nd largest sinus? frontalf
which sinusis usually developed at birth? maxilary
when are the other sinuses distinguishable 6 or 7
For the lateral projection of the sinuses, what   plane and what line is parrallel IOml, msp
what line is perp? interpupillaryf
t/f for a lateral projection of the sinus all 4   sinus groups should be shown true
what 2 sinuses are of primary interest on the   lateral proj of the sinus?f sphenoid and ethmoid
For the PA axial projection (caldwell method) of   the sinuses which sinuses are of primary interest frontal sinus
where should the petrous ridges be for the PA   axial projection (caldwell method) of the sinuses lower 1/3 of orbits
the parietoacanthia projection of the sinuses is   used to demonstrate which sinuses maxiallry sinus
the parietoacanthia projection of the sinuses is   also used to demonstrate wich foramen? foramen rotundum
The submentovertical (SMV) projection of the sinuses   is used to dimonstrate which sinuses ethmoidal and sphenoidal
wehre does the cr enter for The submentovertical   (SMV) projection of the sinuses Though the sella turcica
the CR shold be perp to the ___ for the The   submentovertical (SMV) projection of sinuses IOML
What line is perp to the IR forlateral projection   of the skull IOML
where does the central ray enter for the lateral   projectionof the nasal bone 1/2 inch distal to the nasion
which radiographic cranial position best   demonstrate the sella turcica? lateral
cranial sutures are ______ joints fibrous
which exteranal landmark corresponds with the   petrous ridge? tea
list 3 classifications of the skull mesocephalic, brachiocephalic, dolichocephalic
what evidence on AP axial (twn) radiograph indicates   whether the correct CR angle and correct head flexion were used? Dorsum sellae, posterior clinoids on foramen   magnum
which AP axial projection for sella turcica best   visualizes the anterior clinoid processes? 30 degree caudal to IOML
which projection best demostrate the foramen   rotundum? 25 – 30 PA axial
what type of CR is used if dorsum sellae and   posteior clinoid are of interest? 37 degree caudad
what does tmj stand for temperomandibular joint

 

Positioning HW7 test pelvis

Question Answer
What structure of the pelvis articulates   with the femur? Acetabulum
What bones of the pelvis compose the   acetabulum? pubis, ischium, and ilium
On which bone is the ala located? ilium
what pelvic structure is NOT used as a   positioning palpation point? ischial spine
What portion of the hip bone joins to   form the obturator foramen? pubis and ischium only
what is the name of the border that   extends on the hip bone from the posterior superior iliac spine to the ASIS? iliac crest
What is the name of the process that   seperates the greater sciatic notch from the lesser sciatic notch on the hip   bone? ischial spine
Which parts of the hip bones support the   weight of the body when a person is sitting on a swing? ischial tuberosity
Where in the pelvis is the body of the   pubis located? it forms part of the acetabulum
Where should the IR be centered for the   AP projection of the pelvis? Modway between the ASIS and the pubic   symphsis
Where on the midline of the patient   should the central ray enter for the AP projection of the pelvis? 2inches (5cm) above the pubis symphsis
Which positioning maneuver should be   performed to place the femoral necks parallel with the IR for an AP   projection of the pelvis? rotate the lower limbs medially 15 to 20   degrees
How should the central ray be directed   for the AP oblique projection(modified Cleaves method) to demonstrate   bilateral hips? Perpendiculary
For which projection of the lower limb or   pelvis should the hips be flexed and the femurs be abducted from the midline   of the patient? AP oblique projection(modified Cleaves   method) for femoral necks
Where on the midline of the patient   should be central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection(modified   Cleaves method)? 1inch (2.5cm) above the pubis symphsis
All of the following projections can be   used to image a patient with a suspended intertrochanteric fracture except? lateral projection (lauenstein method) of   the hip
For the Ap oblique projection (modified   Cleaves method) what is the purpose of abducting the femurs the required   nuber of degrees? to position the femoral necks parallel   with the IR
WHich structue should be centered to the   midline of the table when the AP oblique projection(modified Cleaves method)   is adapted to demonstrate only one hip? ASIS
for which projection of an individual hip   should the unaffected hip be flexed and the thigh be raised out of the way of   the central ray? Axiolateral projection(Danelius-Miller   method)
For which projection of the hip should   the central ray be directed horizontally into the medial aspect of the   affected thigh? Axiolateral projection(Danelius-Miller   method)
What demontrates suspected fractures of   the acetabulum the best? AP oblique projection (Judet method)
What postions would be used to   demonstrate the posterior rim of the left acetabulum? 45 degree RPO
what specific portion of the acetabulum   is demonstarted by the AP oblique projection external oblique position (Judet   method?) Anterior rim
what best describes the pubic and ischial   rami without foreshortening? Ap axial “outlet” projection   (taylor method)
What is the proper central ray   orientation for the AP axial projection (Taylor method) for female patients? 30 to 45 degrees cephalad

 

Trunk Skel Practical – Positioning info for TS practical

Question Answer
TSPINE AP 14X17 LW. CR to T7 (3-4 inches below jug   notch) Cassette placed 1.5 inches above shoulders. Collimate to spine.   (expiration)
TSPINE LAT 14X17 LW. Position true lat with no   rotation of pelvis or shoulders. CR to long axis of tspine. (more posterior)   Place top of cassette 2 inches above shoulders. Use breathing technique.   Wider collimation
LSPINE AP 14×17 LW. CR perp to film centered at   crest. Take on expiration.
LSPINE POSTERIOR OBLIQUES 14X17 LW. Position pt. into 45 degree   oblique. CR centered 1.5 inches above crest and 2 inches medial to upside   ASIS. Mark side down and use upside ear as a positioning mark for center of   line. if zyga joints are more anterior pt is underrotated. If zyga
LSPINE LATERAL 14×17 LW. Position pt into true lateral.   CR perp and centered to crest. May require 5-8 caudal degree angle.   Verterbral bodies and greater sciatic notch superimposed.
L-5 AND S-2 SPOT 8×10 LW. CR 1.5 inches below crest and 2   inches posterior ASIS. 5-8 DEGREE caudal angle.
AP AXIAL SACRUM 82 kvp 20 mas 10X12 LW. 20 DEGREE cephalad angle   centered midway b/n sym pubis and ASIS.
AP COCCYX 78 kvp 20 mas 10X12 LW. 10 DEGREE caudal angle centered   2 inches above sym pubis.
LAT SACRUM AND COCCYX 102 kvp 25 mas 10X12 LW. Position pt into true lat and   CR centered perp 3-4 inches posterior ASIS.
SI JOINTS AP AXIAL 10X12 LW. 30-35 DEGREE cephalad angle   (Drop vertical distance) centered 2 inches below ASIS. (On phantom center   close to sym pubis to avoid cutting off top of joints)
SI JOINTS OBLIQUE 10X12 LW. Position pt into 25-30 degree   oblique. (20) Side of interest up. CR 1 inch medial to upside ASIS. Mark side   up.
RIBS PA/AP 72 kvp 8.9 mas 14X17 LW/CW Top of IR 1.5 in above   shoulders CR centered to T7. Ribs above on inspiration. Ribs below on   expiration
RIBS OBLIQUE 14X17 LW. Place pt in 45 degree oblique.   If posterior, shoot side down. If anterior shoot upside. Shoot whatever side   the spine is not on. Side of interest closest to IR for determining AP OR PA.
RAO STERNUM 10X12 LW. Place pt in 15-20 degree   oblique with right side down. Top of IR 1.5 inches above jug notch. CR midway   b/n jug notch and xiphoid tip, left of midline.
LAT STERNUM 10X12 LW. Top of IR 1.5 inches above jug   notch. Position true lateral. CR centered midway b/n jug notch and xiphoid   tip. A little more anterior, entering through pec muscle.
PELVIS 14X17 CW. Top of IR 1-2 inches above   crest. center to center of film. Point toes inward.

 

Positioning LGI

Question Answer
What is the patient prep for a small   intestine exam NPO- 8 hours
The first small intestine exam should be   taken how long after the patient drinks the barium 15 mins
What are the essential projections for a   small intestine exam PA and AP
Where is the IR centered for a delayed   radiograph of the small intestine Iliac crest
What exams require the use of time   markers Small intestine
Where is the IR centered for a   radiographs of the small intestine tha are taken within 30mins of drinking   the barium 2inches above the iliac crest
“High Density” barium sulfate   is use for what Double contrast intestine exams
Wha is the patient prep of intestinal   tract for the colon exam Laxative, dietary restrictions, and   cleansing enema
Methods of radiographically examining of   the colon include Single and double contrast
What methods are used to administer   barium for a radiographic exam of the small intestines Oral, reflux filling, and enterolysis
Who should inflate the retention balloon   for a barium enema Radiologist should inflate with fluro
What position should the patient be   placed in for the insertion of the enema tip for a barium enema Sims
How far above the anus is the enema bag   laced during a barium enema 18-24 inches
The majority of AP,PA, and oblique   radiographs taken during a BE are done on 35×43 IRs. Where is the IR centered   for the majority of these projections Iliac crest
What is the respiration phase for all   projections of the large intestine Suspended expiration
Which projections are taken during a BE   will demonstrate the rectosigmoid area Lateral, PA, AP axial
What’s the CR angulation for the PA Axial   projection of the large intestine 30 to 40 degrees caudad
What is the degree of body rotation for   the PA oblique projection(RAO or LAO) of the large intestine 35 to 45 degrees
At which plane is the CR positioned for   the PA oblique projection (RAO or LAO) of the large intestine A longitudinal plane 1-2 inches lateral   to the midline of the body on the elevated side
Which projection of the colon best   demonstrates the right colic flexure PA oblique RAO and AP oblique LPO
What projection of the colon best   demonstrates the ascending colon PA oblique RAO
A PA oblique projection of the colon in a   LAO position clearly demonstrates what Descending colon and left colic flexure
What projection of the colon best   demonstrates the left colic flexure PA oblique LAO
At what level is the center of the IR   positioned for a lateral projection of the rectosigmoid area ASIS
Which plane is centered to the grid for a   lateral projection of the large intestine Midcoronal plane
What’s the CR angulation for an AP Axial   projection of the large intestine 30-40 degrees cephalad
What is the degree of body rotation for   an AP oblique projection of the large intestine 35-45 degrees
What projection will clearly demonstrate   the descending colon PA oblique(LAO) and AP oblique(RPO)
Where is the IR centered for all   decubitus projections of the large intestine Iliac crest
What projection demonstrates the rectum   and rectosigmoid area Ina true axial projection Chassard- lapine projection
The large intestine is made up of a   series of pouches called Haustra
The pouch like portion of the large   intestine is situated below the junction of the ileum and colon is Cecum
The ascending portion of the colon joins   the transverse colon at the Right colic flexure
For which type of body habitus is the   large intestine bunched together and and positioned very low abdomen Asthenic
The general term used to describe the   surgical procedure of forming an artificial opening to the intestine for the   passageway of fecal matter Enterostomy
What projection are used for radiographs   made during defecography Lateral
The vermiform appendix is a small, blind   pouch which projects inferior from the Cecum
How far is the enema tip inserted into   the rectum for colon exam 3.5-4 inches
The entire colon is best demonstrated in   which projection PA or AP
Which projection of the colon will best   demonstrate the medial aspect of the ascending colon and lateral aspect of   the descending colon when it is inflated with air AP right lateral decubitus
Which projection of the colon best   demonstrates the lateral aspect of the ascending colon and medial aspect of   the descending colon when it is inflated by air AP left lateral decubitus
What’s the length of the average small   intestine 22 feet
What is the main function of the small   bowel Digestion of food and absorption of food
How many layers is the colon composed of 4
What is the length of the large intestine 5 feet
The main function of the large intestine   is Reabsorption of fluid and elimination of   waste
The opening between the small intestine   and larger intestine is called Ileocecal valve
The contraction waves by which the   digestive tube moves its contents toward the return is called Peristalsis
What are the folds of the stomach called Rugae
Finger like projections are called Villi
Where does the duodenum and the jejunum   join Duodenojejunum flexure
Largest gland in the body Liver
What are the two regions of the abdomen   that are almost entirely occupied by the liver Right hypochondria and epigastric regions
Where is the spleen located l Left upper quadrant
During an ERCP an endoscope is passed   into the duodenum under fluoroscopic control. A spot radiographs are usually   taken of the Pancreatic duct and common bile duct
During an operative cholangiogram the   surgeon ingests contrast medium directly in to the biliary system. Which   projections are typically taken with this procedure AP and AP oblique RPO
What are the four parts to the large   intestine? 1)Cecum 2)Colon 3)Rectum 4)Anal Canal
Where and what is the vermiform appendix   attached to? Posteromedial Side of the Cecum
What methods are used for radiographic   examinations of the colon? Single or Double Contrast
What Projection and position will best   demonstrate the posterior portion of the colon Lateral projection in Left or Right   Ventral Decubitus position
What are the methods of performing a   double contrast barium enema? Single stage, & two stage by Welin

 

Ch. 9 Part B-1 Positioning of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine

Question Answer
Upper portion of the sternum Manubrium
Superior margin of upper section of sternum (landmark) Jugular notch (suprasternal notch)
Main center portion of sternum body
Joint between top and center portions of sternum (landmark) Sternal angle
Most inferior aspect of sternum (landmark) xiphoid process

 

Ch. 9 Part B-3 Positioning of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine

Question Answer
In addition to the gonads, which 3 other   radiosensitive organs are of greatest concern during cervical and thoracic   spine radiography Thyroid gland, para thyroid glands, and   female breasts.
Two advantages of using higher kV   exposure factors for spine radiography, especially on an AP thoracic spine   radiograph Increase in exposure latitude and   decrease in patient dose.
T/F When using digital imaging for spine   radiography, it is important to use close collimation, grids, and lead   masking. True- it is important to use close   collimation, grids, and lead masking.
T/F If close collimation is used during   conventional radiography of the spine, the use of lead masking is generally   not required. False- Lead masking should be used even   if close collimation is used.
T/F To a certain degree, MRI and CT are   replacing myelography as the imaging modalities of choice for the diagnosis   of a ruptured intervertebral disk. True- These modalities are replacing   myelography.
T/F Nuclear Medicine is often performed   to diagnose bone tumors of the spine. True. Nuclear Medicine is used to   diagnose bone tumors of the spine.
To ensure that the intervertebral joint   spaces are open for lateral thoracic spine projections, it is important to : Keep the vertebral column parallel to the   image receptor.
For lateral and oblique projections of   the cervical spine, it is important to minimize magnification and maximize   detail by : Using a small focal spot and increasing   the source to image receptor distance (SID).
What are the major differences between   spondylosis and spondylitis? Spondylitis is an inflammatory process of   the vertebrae. Spondylosis is a condition of the spine characterized by   rigidity of a vertebral joint.
What is the name of the radiographic   procedure that requires the injection of contrast media into the subarachnoid   space? Myelography
Which imaging modality is ideal for   detecting early signs of osteomyelitis? Nuclear Medicine
T/F Many geriatric patients have a fear   of falling off the radiographic table. True.
Which two landmarks must be aligned for   an AP “open mouth” projection. The lower margin of upper incisors and   the base of the skull.
What is the purpose of the 15 to 20   degree angle for the AP axial projection of the cervical spine? To open the intervertebral disk space.
For an AP axial of the cervical spine, a   plane through the tip of the mandible and _______ should be parallel to the   angled central ray. Base of skull
What are two important benefits of an SID   longer than 40-44 inches for the lateral cervical spine projections? Less divergence of x-ray beam to reduce   shoulder superimposition of C7, and compensates for increased OID; reducing   magnification.
What central ray angulation must be used   with a posterior oblique projection of the cervical spine? 15 degree cephalad angle.
Which foramina are demonstrated with a   left posterior oblique (LPO) position of the cervical spine? The right intervertebral foramina or   upside.
Which foramina are demonstrated witha a   left anterior oblique (LAO) position of the cervical spine? The left intervertebral foramina or   downside.
In addition to extending the chin, which   additional positioning technique can be performed to ensure that the mandible   is not superimposed over the upper cervical vertebrae for the oblique   projections? Rotate the skull into a near lateral   position.
What is the recommended SID for a lateral   projection of the cervical spine? 60″ – 72″
The lateral projection of the cervical   spine should be taken during _________. Expiration. To maximize shoulder   depression.
Which specific projection must be taken   first if trauma to the cervical spine is suspected and the patient is in a   supine position on a backboard? Lateral, horizontal beam projection.
The proper name of the method for   performing the cervicothoracic (swimmer’s lateral) projection is the________. Twining method.
Where should the central ray be placed   for a cervicothoracic (swimmer’s lateral) projection? At T1 1 inch above jugular notch, or at   the vertebral prominence (C7)
Which region of the spine must be   demonstrated with a cervicothoracic (swimmer’s lateral) projection? C4 to T3
Which one of the following projections is   considered a “functional study” of the cervical spine. AP wagging   jaw projection, AP open mouth position, Fuchs or Judd method, Hyperextension   and flexion lateral positions. Hyperextension and flexion lateral   positions.
When should the Judd or Fuchs method be   performed? If unable to demonstrate the upper   portion of the dens with the AP open mouth projection.
Which AP projection of the cervical spine   demonstrates the entire upper cervical spine with one single projection? Scoliosis series.
Which two things can be done to produce   equal density along the entire thoracic spine for the AP projection   (especially for a patient with a thick chest)? correct use of anode-heel effect; use of   compensating (wedge) filter.
What is the purpose for using a brething   technique for a lateral projection of the thoracic spine? To blur out rib and lung markings that   obscure detail of thoracic vertebrae.
Which zygopophyseal joints are   demonstrated in a right anterior oblique (RAO) projection of the thoracic   spine? The right downside.
Which one of the following projections   delivers the greatest skin dose to the patient? AP thoracic spine projection,   Lateral cervical spine projection, Swimmer’s lateral projection, Fuchs or   Judd method. Swimmer’s Lateral
Which of the following results in the   lowest midline and skin doses for the patient? AP T-Spine projection at   90kV@7 mAs, AP T-spine at 80kV @12 mAs, Lateral T-spine at 80kV@50 mAs,   Oblique T-spine at 80kV@20 mAs AP Thoracic spine at 90kV@7mAs
T/F The thyroid dose used during a   posterior oblique cervical spine projection is more than 10 times greater   than the dose used for an anterior oblique projection of the cervical spine. True (anterior oblique <5 mrad;   posterior oblique <69 mrad)
Which one of the following structures is   best demonstrated with an AP axial vertebral arch projection? Spinous   processes-lumbar spine, Articular pillar-(lateral mass)-cervical spine,   Zygopophyseal joints-thoracic spine, Cervicothoracic spine region. Articular pillar (lateral masses) of   cervical spine.
What central ray angle must be used with   the AP axial-vertebral arch projection? 20-30 degree caudal angle
What ancillary device should be placed   behind the patient on the table top for a recumbent lateral projection of the   thoracic spine when using computed radiography? lead mat or masking
Which skull positioning line is aligned   perpendicular to the IR for a PA (Judd) projection for the odontoid process? Mentomeatal line (MML)
Which zygopophyseal joints are best   demonstrated with a LPO position of the thoracic spine? right (upside)
How much rotation of the body is required   for an oblique position of the thoracic spine from a true lateral position? 20 degrees from lateral

 

Ch. 9 part B-2 Positioning of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine

Question Answer
Gonion is at the level of C3
Xiphoid process (tip) is at the level of T10
Thyroid cartilage is at the level of C4-C5
Jugular notch is at the level of T2-T3
Sternal angle is at the level of T4-T5
Mastoid tip is at the level of C1
Vertebra prominens C7-T1
3 to 4 inches (8 to 10cm) below jugular notch T7

 

positioning of the cspine (including special projections)

Question Answer
AP axial -supine: 40″ SID, erect: 40 or 72″ SID
Lateral – Grandy method -72″ SID
Hyperflexion lateral -everything the same as lateral
Hyperextension lateral -everything the same as lateral
AP atlas&axis (odontoid view) -supine or erect
AP axial oblique -ERECT/supine
PA axial oblique -same as AP axial
Ottonello/wagging jaw/chewing method -pt in AP projection
Twining Method -erect lateral shoot-thru of cervicalthoracic region
Pawlow method (recumbent lateral) -pts whole body in lateral position
Trauma projections -AP axial
Fuchs method – odontoid -mandible perp. to IR
Judd method – odontoid -pt prone (PA position)
swimmers view -arm closest to IR raised, other arm down

 

positioning of the thoracic spine (special projections included)

Question Answer
AP thoracic -40″ SID
Recumbent Lateral – no angle -supine or erect
Recumbent lateral – with angle -same as no angle
AP oblique -pt rotated 45 degrees
PA oblique -exactly the same as AP oblique

 

Positioning: Pelvis

Positioning Questions Answer
Pelvic Exam: position of IR Top of cassette s/b 1-2″ above ILC
Pelvic Exam: Orientation of cassette landscape
Pelvic Exam: technique for portable 80kVp @ 40mAs
Pelvic Exam: What should the SID be? 48″
Pelvic Exam: CR centering MS & include PB Symph.

 

Positioning quiz T3 Hip

Question Answer
What does the hip bone consist of? ilium, pubis, and ischium
How many degrees should your feet and lower limb be internally   rotated for an AP Pelvis projection? 15 to 20
What is shown in profile if the lower limb and foot are correctly   positioned? greater trochanter
How many degrees is the lower limb and foot rotated internally for   an AP hip projection? 15 to 20
What is the CR angle for an AP hip? 0 degrees or perpendicular
What is the respiration for an Axial lateral projection of the hip   (Danelius-Miller Method? Suspended Respiration
What is the respiration for an AP projection of the pelvis? Suspended Respiration
What is the IR size and cassette position in an AP hip projection? 10×12 or 24cmx30cm ; lengthwise
What is the strongest bone in the body? femur
What type of joint is the hip joint? ball and socket synovial joint
How far apart should the heels be placed in order to turn feet   internally for an AP Pelvis projection? 8inches to 10inches

 

Positioning UGI

Question Answer
About how long is the alimentary canal? 30 feet
What are the components of the alimentary   canal? mouth, pharynx, stomach, intestine,   esophagus, colon, and anus
The expanded portion of the terminal   esophagus is called Cardiac antrum
The stomach wall is composed of how many   layers? 4 fibrous,muscular, mucosous and   submucous
The act of swallowing is termed deglutition
The muscular opening between the stomach   and the duodenum is termed pyloric sphincter
For which body habitus is the stomach   almost horizontal hypersthenic
for which body habitus is the stomach   almost vertical asthenic
What are the functions of the stomach storage of food and the chemical   breakdown of food
What is the widest part of the small   bowel duodenum
The most distal portion of the small   intestine is what ileum
The small intestine is attached to the   posterior wall of the abdomen by what mesentary
The esophagus is located how to the   larynx posterior
The opening that joins the stomach and   the esophagus is the esophagogastric junction
what term describes the lateral border of   the stomach greater curvature
What is the term for the longitudinal   mucosal folds found within the stomach rugae
toward which aspects of the stomach will   barium graviate with the patient in the prone postion body and ptlorus
How long does it take barium to go   through the alimentary canal and reach the anus 24 hours
The names of contrast medium used for   examinations of the gastrointestinal tract Air, barium sulfate, water soluble iodine   and gastrograffin
what is the most commonly used contrast   medium for an exam of the gastrointestinal tract barium sulfate
once food enters the stomach and is mixed   with gastric secretion it is called chyme
What is the recommended oblique   projection and position for best demonstration of the esophagus PA, RAO
what is the respritation phase for all   radiographic exposures of the stomach and intestines expiration
What is the degree of the body rotation   for the PA oblique projection of the esophagus 35-40 degrees
What is the recommended general body   position for a radiographic series of the esophagus recumbant
Advantages of using the recumbant postion   for the radiographs of the esophagus varices are better filled and more   complete filling of the esophagus
What is a common passageway of both food   and air pharynx
What is the cartilage that prevents food   from entering the pharynx epiglottis
What is the essential projection for the   stomach and duodenum PA, PA Oblique, AP, AP Oblique, Lateral
In a PA oblique projection of the stomach   and duodenum what plane is centered to the grid sagittal
During an AP or PA Oblique projection of   the stomach and duodenum what level is the IR centered to the body of the stomach at L1/L2
What is the average body rotation for an   AP Oblique projection of the stomach and duodenum 45 degrees
What projection of the stomach best   demonstrates a diaphrogomatic henination Ap projection
In an AP projection of the stomach what   projection will best demonstrate the rectrogastic portion of the duodenuma dn   jejunum Supine and Trendelenburgs
What opening joins the small intestine   and the stomach pyloric orfices
In a PA projection of the stomach what   does it best demonstrate the stomach contour and the duodenal bulb
What are the main subdivisions of the   stomach cardia, fundus, body, pyloric portion
What body habitus is at 10%, 5%, 50%, and   35% Asthenic, Hypersthenic, Sthenic, and   Hyposthenic
What is the sequence of an esophogram for   an esophageal varices exhale fully, swallow barium, aviod   inspiration
During all exams of the esophagus the top   of the IR is postioned where At the level of the mouth for inclusions   of entire esophagus
Which plane is centered to the midline of   the table for a lateral esophagus midcoronal
High postion of the stomach is in which   body habitus hypersthenic
What is the patient prep for a stomach   exam No food or fluid after midnight
Food and fluid are withheld for how many   hours before a stomach exam 8 hours
Routinely used method of examining the   stomach single and double contrast
Advantages for using the double contrast   for stomach exams Small lesions are not obscured and mucosal   lining of the stomach can be more clearly visualized
Stomach with duodenal bulb at the level   of L1/L2 would be found in what type of patient sthenic
A PA projection of the stomach and   duodenum can be preformed uing a 14×17 or 10×12. Which plane is centered to   the grid for the projection sagittal plane passing halfway between   the vertebral column and the midcoronal plane
Which level is the IR centered for a   projection of the stomach and duodenum on a patient that has a sthenic body   habitus L1
Body rotated for the PA oblique   projection(RAO position) of the stomach and duodenum is 40-70 degrees
The greatest degree of rotation would be   used for what body habitus hypersthenic
What projection and position will best   demonstrate the duodenal bulb and loop in profile PA Oblique, RAO
What projection of the stomach would a   positioning sponge be used in AP Oblique LPO
What is the degree of body rotation of an   AP oblique stomach 30-60 degrees
What projection of the stomach   demonstartes the anterior and posterior surface lateral
what plane is positioned to the center of   he grid for a lateral projection of the stomach and duodenum Coronal plane 1.5 inches anterior to the   midcoronal plane
A patient comes to radiology for an UGI   series. the patient has a clinical history of hiatal hernia. what position   will best demonstarte this AP trendelengburg
What best describes the relationship   between the esophagus and the trachea Esophagus is posterior to the trachea
What postition best demontrates the   esophageal varices recumbent
The folds of the thich inner lining of   the stomach are called rugae
The esophagus joins the stomach through   what opening cardiac orifice
What is the % of population witha sthenic   and hypersthenic body habitus 85%
What is the middle part of the small   intestine called jejunum
What is the shortest part of the small   intestine called duodenum
What is the longest part of the small   intestine called ileum
What are contraction waves called peristalsis
What is the largest gland in the body liver
What is the name of the vessels that   supply blood to the liver portal vien and hepatic artery
What is the function of the gallbladder store and concentration of bile
What is the function of the exocrine   cells of the pancrease produces and secretes digestive juices
How do you record fluroscopic exams Tv, cinema, video recorder
What is the drugs that relax the GI tract   before a double contrats study glucagon
Common bile duct and pancreatic duct unit   to form what Hepatopancreatic papilla
OPening inside the duodenum where the   pancreatic enzymes and bile enters is called greater duodenal papilla
the duodenum joins the jejunum at the   sharp curve called duodenojejunal flexure
what is the functions of the spleen produce lymphocytes and store and remove   dead or dying blood cells
what is the specific radiographic exam of   the billary duct termed cholangiography
What ate the accessory organs liver pancrease, gallbladder and salivary   glands
In what two regions of the abdomen is the   liver in right hyperchondrium and epigastic
In what quadraunt is the spleen in left uppper quad.
What position best enhances peristalic   motion of barium through the stomach RAO
What is the length of the average adult   intestine 22 feet
The walls of the small intestine is   composed of how many layers 4
How many distinct portions is the small   intestine divided into 3
What the names of the salivary glands partiod, sublingual and   submandibular(submaxillary)
what is the function of the small bowel digestion and absorption of food
the dilated portion of the esophagus is   the cardiac antrun
What part of the stomach is attached to   the duodenum pylorus
What part of the pancrease is adjacent to   the c-loop of the duodenum the head
What division of the duodenum contains   the duodenal bulb or cap first(superior)
What negative contrast medium is used   during a UGI series sodium bicarbonate
What should you do before the use of   barium sulfate Stur it well
What chemical indication would mandate   the use of an oral, water soluble contrast agent possible bowel perforation
Where is the tube positioned during   fluroscopy under the table
What are the cardinal rules distance, shielding,time
What is the most efffective cardinal rule   to reduce patient dose distance
What condition involves dilated veins in   the distal aspect of the esophagus which may lead to internal bleeding esophageal varices
Enlarged recess or out pouching in the   proximal esophagus is Zenkers diverticulum
a mass of undigested material bezoar
inflammation of the stomach gastritis
give example of GERD esophageal reflux
what is the most common diagnostic   procedure to diagnosis gerd endoscopy
what is a potntial risk associated with   the use of water soluble contrast agents in geratic patiens dehydration
Patient prep for UGI series NPO 8 hours before the procedure
what is the kV range used for an UGI   series using barium sulfate 100-110
Centering of the CR for an esophagram   should be to the level of T5-T6
How much obliquity is required for the   RAO position for the esophagus 35-40 degrees
What esophagram projection /positions   will project the majority of the esophagus over the spine AP
What UGI projection/position will best   demonstrate barium in the body and pylorus PA
What UGI projection/position will best   demonstrate the pylorus and duodenal bulb in profile with double contrast   study LPO
At what level would the IR and CR be   centered for the RAO position(PA project)UGI on a sthenic body type patient L1/L2
A radiograph taken during an UGI series   demonstrates poor visibility of gastric mucosa. 80kV, 30mAs, 1/40sec exposure   time, high speed IR, barium sulfate used. What factors need to be mortified   during the repeat exam Increase kV decrease mAs as needed
Patient history indicates a tumor   posterior to stomach what projection/position will best demonstrate this Right lateral
The funds is filled with barium and the
duodenal bulb is in profile and air filled. If the patient was in the   recumbent position the whole time what projectin needs to be repeated
AP LPO
During an UGI series the   “Lucent-halo” signs appear in the duodenum. What does this mean in   the radiograph An ulcer appears
The salivary gland that is located near   the angle of the mandible is Submaxillary
What instructions should be given to the   patient after an UGI exam Drink plenty of water take a mild   laxative
The mucosa of the small intestine   contains a series of finger like projections called Villi
What body position demonstrates the   duodenal loop filled with barium contrast he best Recumbent right lateral
What is the curvature called for the   right(medial) borders the stomach Lesser
What is the superior part of the stomach   called Fundus
What is the inferior part of the stomach   called Pylorus

 

Positioning, Landmarks and bones registry review

Question Answer
The coronoid process is where? Elbow
Which position is the coronoid process best   visualized? Medial oblique elbow
Which of the following techniques would provide a   PA projection of the gastroduodenal surfaces of a hypersthenic patient? Angle CR 35-45 degrees cephalad
An exact PA position of the skull is positioned? The OML perpendicular to the Image receptor (IR),   the CR is perpendicular to the IR and exits at the nasion.
An LPO position during an upper GI in an average   size patient demonstrates? A barium filled fundus, double contrast of   pylorus and duodenal bulb.
A lateral weight bearing foot demonstrates what? The longitudinal arch.
Thyroid over activity is associated with which   disease? Graves disease.
How do you position an AP axial projection of the   skull (Townes)? CR directed 30 degrees caudal to OML and passing   midway between the EAM.
What portion of the skull is best demonstrated in   the Townes Method? Occipital Bone.
The RPO of the right acetabulum demonstrates   what? Anterior rim of the right acetabulum and the   right iliac wing.
When should metformin in be withheld when   patients are scheduled for iodinated contrast studies? 48 hours prior to procedure.
Which position is more likely to place the right   kidney parallel to the IR? LPO
In a merchant view of the patella the quadriceps   femoris is in? Complete relaxation.
What positions can be used to visualize the   Odontoid process? Fuchs Method, PA Judd Method, AP Open mouth, AP   Dens, PA waters
A persistent fetal foremen ovale results in what? An atrial septal defect.
What position will best demonstrate subacromial   or subcoracoidal dislocation? PA Scapular Y
In a Lateral Oblique projection of the foot,   which bones are best demonstrated? The first and second cuneiforms
Yellow marrow i found where? The central cavity within the shaft of the long   bone in an adult.
Evaluation of a lateral humerus demosntrates   what? Lesser tubercle in profile and superimposed   epicondyles
Contrast media is introduced into the ___________   in myelography? Subarachnoid space.
The Bregma is the junction of which sutures? Sagittal and Coronal sutures.
The internal rotation projection of the shoulder   demonstrates what? The lesser tubercle in profile medially
What portion of the humerus articulates with the   ulna to help form the elbow joint? The trochlea
What are examples of synovial pivot   articulations? Atlantoaxial joint and the radioulnar joint
The lumbar transverse process is represented by   what in an LPO or RPO position of the spine? The nose of the Scotty dog
An injury to a structure located on the side   opposite that of the primary injury is referred to as: Contrecoup
The tangential view of the metatarsals and toes   can demonstrate what? Sesamoid bones
Apirated foreign bodies are most likely to to   lodge where in an adult? The right main stem bronchi
In the Trauma Axial Lateral Elbow (Coyle Method)   with the CR 45 degrees laterally from the shoulder what is best seen? Coronoid process and the trochlea
What are the structures of the brainstem? Pons, medulla oblongata, and the midbrain.
The articular facets of L5-S1 are best   demonstrated in a? 30 degree oblique
What is the secondary ossification center in long   bones? The epiphysis
What part of the Scotty dog represents the lumbar   lamina? The body
At what level do the carotid arteries bifurcate? C4
Left lateral decubitus view in a double contrast   BE would show best the: Lateral wall of the descending colon and the   medial wal, of the ascending colon
All elbow fat pads are demonstrated in which position? Lateral elbow
What structures make up the mediastinum? Heart, Trachea, and Esophagus
What are a couple of examples of a diarthrotic   joint? The knee and the TMJ
Ulnat deviation/flexing demonstrate which   carpals? Scaphoid and lateral carpals
Some lovers try positions that they can’t handle.   What does this refer to? Carpal bones.
Structures that comprise the neural or vertebral   arch include? Pedicles and laminae
Asthenic body habitus is characterized by what? Long and narrow thoracic cavity, low and midline   stomach and gallbladder.
A hypersthenic body habitus is characterized by   what? Short, wide transverse heart, high and peripheral   large bowel.
What is the plane that divides the body into   anterior and posterior halves Mid coronal plane

 

PositionIV quiz1 digestive system

Question Answer
What does the digestive system consist of? Accessory glands and the alimentary canal
What does the accessory glands include? Salivary gland, liver, gallbladder, pancrease
What does the accessory glands do? The secrete digestive enzymes into the alimentary canal
What is the alimentary canal? A musculomembranous tube that extends from the mouth to the anus
How long is the great part of the alimentary canal and where does it   lie? 29 to 30 feet(8.6 to8.9 cm) long and is int the abdominal cavity
What are the component parts of the alimentary canal and what are   their functions? Mouth/food is masticated &converted into bolus by   salivation-pharynx/esophagus/these organs are used for   swallowing-stomach/digestion starts-small intestine/digestion complete-large   intestine/the organ of ingestion and water then it terminates at the-anus
What is the esophagus? Large muscular tube that carries food and saliva from the   laryngopharynx to the stomach
How long is the adult esophagus? 10 inches long and 3/4 inch in diameter
What are the walls of the esophagus made of? Outward to inward/ fibrous layer, muscular layer, submucosal layer,   and mucosal layer
Where does the esophagus lie? In the midsagittal plane level of 6th c-spine or upper thyroid   cartilage
Where does the esophagus enter and pass through the upper portion? Enters at the thorax and passes through the mediastinum, anterior to   the vertebral bodies and posterior to the trachea and heart
Lower portion of the esophagus passes through what? The diaphragm at T-10 the inferior to the diaphragm the esophagus   curves sharply left, increases diameter; joins the stomach at the   esophagogastric junction which is at the level of the xiphiod tip or T11
What is the expanded portion of the terminal esophagus which lies in   the abdomen called? Cardiac Antrum
What’s the dilated, saclike portion of the digestive tart extending   between the esophagus and the small intestine called? Stomach
What are the walls of the stomach made of? Outward to inward/ fibrous layer, muscular layer, submucosal layer,   and mucosal layer
What are the four parts that make up the stomach? Cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric portion
This is the section of the stomach immediately surrounding the   esophageal opening. Cardia
This is the superior portion of the stomach that expands superiorly   and fills the dome of the left hemidiaphragm. Fundus
Descending from the fundus and beginning at the level of the cardiac   notch is the Body of the stomach
Distal to the vertical plane is what portion of the stomach? Pyloric portion
Wen the patient is in an upright position the fundus is usually   filled with what? Gas or gas bubble
The mucosal layer of the body of the stomach contains numerous   longitudinal folds called Rugae
When the stomach is full how is the rugae? Smooth
What does the pyloric portion of the stomach contain? Pyloric Antrum to the right of the angular notch and the narrow   pyloric canal communicating with the duodenal bulb
The right border of the stomach is marked by what? Lesser curvature which begins at the esophagogastric junction and to   the right border of the esophagus ending at the concave curve of the pylorus
The left and inferior borders of the stomach are marked as Greater curvature beginning at the esophagogastric junction, cardiac   notch and follows the superior curvature of the fundus and then the convex   curvature of the body down to the pylorus
Which is larger the lesser or greater curvature and by how much? Greater curvature by 4 to 5 times longer
What is the entrance to and exit from the stomach controlled by? A muscle sphincter
The esophagus joins the stomach at the esophagogastric junction   through an opening called what? And what controls this? Cardiac orifice ;cardiac sphincter
The opening between the stomach and small intestine is called what   and what controls it? Pyloric orifice ; pyloric sphincter
The size, shape, and position of the stomach depends on what? The body habitus
What habitus is the stomach almost horizontal and is high, with its   dependent portion well above the umbilical area? Hypersthenic
What body habitus is the stomach vertical and occupies a low   position , with its dependent portion extending well below the transplyoric   or interspinous, line? Asthenic
What is the body habitus of 85% of the population? Sthenic or hyposthenic
5% of the population is what type of body habitus? Hypersthenic
50% of the population has what type of body habitus? Sthenic
35% of the population has what type of body habitus? Hyposthenic
10% of the population has what type of body habitus? Asthenic

 

Postioning test 2 Leg

Question Answer
How many bones are in the leg? two
What are the bones in the leg called? Tibia and fibula
Which bone is know as the weight bearing bone? Tibia
Where is the tibia located? on the medial side of the leg
Where is the fibula located? on the lateral side of the leg
What is the second largest bone in the body? Tibia
In an AP projection of the leg how do you adjust the femoral   condyles? So that they are parallel to the IR and the foot is vertical
What is the central ray angle in an AP projection of the leg? 0 degrees or perpendicular
Since the leg is long how should you postion the IR to get the leg   completely on it? 14×17 diagonal
What are the essential projections of the leg? AP and Lateral
Where do you center the central ray to enter the leg? In the middle
What bones articulate with the talus? the tibia, fibula, and the calcaneous
What joint are you looking for when you x-ray an ankle? mortise joint
How do you know that you have the ankle in a Mortis oblique   projection? the malleoli are parallel to the IR
How many degrees of rotation of the ankle in a mortise projection? 15 to 20
What forms the mortise joint? medial malleolus of the tibia, lateal mallelous of the fibula and   inferior surface of the tibia
What structures are shown in a AP ankle projection? ankle joint, distal tibia and fibula and base of 5th metatarsal
In a lateral ankle projection where is the CR entering at at? medial malleolus
What is the CR angle on a lateral projection of the ankle? 0 degrees or perpendicular
Where should the CR enter in an AP projection of the ankle joint? midway between the malleoli
How do you prevent lateral rotation of the ankle in a lateral projection? dorsiflexion of the foot
In an AP oblique projection what is the CR angle? 0 degrees or perpendicular
In an AP oblique projection where does the CR enter at? midway between the malleoli
What are the essential projections of the ankle? 45 degree medial oblique and mortise
All projections of the ankle should do what? When rotations occur rotate the entire leg and foot
Where does the fibula articulate with the tibia? distal and proximal tibiofibular joint
How do postion in the fibula in a lateral propjection of the ankle? The poperly postioned lateral ankle over the posterior half of the   tibia
If the malleoli are parallel to the IR what are you in postion to   get? the mortise joint
In a Medial and lateral oblique ankle projection how should the leg   and foot be angled? 45 degrees
Which projection shows the mortise joint? AP oblique and 15 to 20 degree rotation mortise joint
Often the leg is to long to fit on one film but what should be shown   on the film? The joint closest to the lesion
Which could be used on a radiograph of the lower limb? film, straps, sponge,sandbags
What is clearly demonstrated in a lateral projection of the leg? knee, ankle joint, tibia, and fibula
In an AP stress study what projections do you do? inversion and eversion
Which specific projection lateral or medial of the ankle shows a   ligament tear? eversion and inversion stress method
Where is the CR directed in an AP projection of the knee? 1/2 inch inferior to the patella apex toward the knee
Where is the patella located in a proper AP knee projection? slightly medial
How do you do an AP knee if the ASIS is 19 to 24 cm when lying on   the table? 0 degrees or perpendicular
How do you do an AP knee if the ASIS is <19 cm when lying on the   table ? 3 to 5 degrees caudad
How do you do an AP knee if the ASIS is >24 cm when lying on the   table? 3 to 5 degrees cephalad
In a lateral projection of the knee how should you flex the knee? 20 to 30 degrees
Which of these is shown in a lateral projection of the knee when   lying down ALL, distal end of the femur, patella, knee joint, proximal ends of   the tibia and fibula, and adjacent soft tissue
Where is the CR angled in a lateral projection of the knee when   lying down? 5 to 7 degrees cephalad
What can be seen in an AP weight bearing bilateral projection of the   knees? Knee joint spaces and varus and valgus deformities
What is the proper collimation of the projection of the leg? 1 inch on the sides and 1 1/2 inch neyond the ankle and knee joints
On what side does the ankle norally break on? lateral malleolus side
What structures are shown on an AP projection of the leg? entire leg with ankle and knee joint
How should you turn the cassette in a lateral projection of the leg? diagnoal same as AP
What is the CR angle for a weight bearing knee? 0 degrees or perpendicular
Where is the CR angled at in a weight bearing knee projection? 1/2 inch below the apex of the patella
What projections of the knees shows the intercondylar fossa? PA axial holmbald and Camp convert methods
How should th knees be flexed in a PA axial holmbald and Camp   convert methods? 70 degrees
What is the CR angle for a PA axial projection of the knee? perpendicular to the lower leg
What positions can we use for a PA axial holmbald method of the   knee? standing with knee on stool, standing with knee flexed or kneeling   on the table
How is the patient positioned in a PA projection of the patella? lying on the stomach (prone position)
How do you make sure that the patella is parallel to the IR in a PA   projection? the heel must be rotated 5 to 10 degrees laterally
What is the CR angle in a PA projection of the knee and where does   it enter? perpendicular to the mid-popliteal area exiting the patella
How many degrees should the knee be flexed for the patella to be   lateral? 5 to 10 degrees
How do know you have a lateral patella projection that was done   correctly? epicondyles are superimposed
What is the CR angle of a Lateral Patella projection? 0 degrees or perpendicular
Where does the CR enter in a lateral patella propjection? mid-patellofemoral joint
What is the essential tangential projection of the patella? the settegast method
How to you place the patient in a settegast method? lying down or prone( perferred lying down)
How do you flex the knee in the settegastmethod in the prone   position? perpendicular to the patella or as much as possible
Where is the CR centered in the settegast method perpendicular to the joint spaces between the patella and the   femoral condyles
In the settegast projection of the knee what is the degree   anglulation of the knee? depends on the flexion of the knee
At the proximal end of the tibia what are the two prominent   processes called? condyles
What are the two flat superior part of the tibia called? tibial plateaus
What is the slope of the tibia plateaus? posteriorly to degrees
what is the anterior surface of the tibia called? tibial tuberosity
What is the circular fibrocartilage disk called the menisci
what type of joint is the ankle mortise joint? synovial hinge
The fibula is a non weight bearing bone
incomplete seperation of the tibural tuberosity? Osgood-schlatter disease
In a lateral projection of the knee how is the knee flexed 20 to 30 degrees
In the camp-coventry method knee projection how should the knee be   flexed and what is the CR angle 40 degrees when the knee is flexed 40 degrees or 50 degrees when the   knee is flexed 50 degrees

 

Upper extremity/Procedures and Positions

Question Answer
Digits (2-5) AP projections *8 x 10, 40″ SID *Seated at end of table, extend digit with   palm down, separate digits slightly, center affected digit to portion of IR.   *CR- perpendicular to PIP, collimate.
Digits (2-5) Oblique projection *8 x 10, 40″SID *Seated at end of table, forearm on table with   hand pronated, palm resting on IR, rotate hand either internal or external   until digits are separated. (45 degrees) *CR- perpendicular to PIP jt,   collimate
Digits (2-5) lateral projection *SHOW THEM HOW TO!. Extend affected digit, close remaining digits   into a fist, support arm if needed. Rest pts. hand on affected side(lateral-2   or 3 digit, medial-4 or 5) *CR-perpendicular to PIP jt. of the affected   digit, collimate
Thumb (1st digit) PA projection *8 x 10, 40″SID *Seated at end of table with arm internally   rotated, adjust body position on chair, rest thumb on IR, long axis of thumb   parallel with long axis of IR, avoid superimposition of remaining digits
Thumb (1st digit) Lateral projection *8×10, 40″SID *seated at end of table with relaxed hand placed   on IR, place hand in natural arched position with surface down, adjust hand   until a true lateral of thumb
Thumb (1st digit) oblique projection *8×10, 40″SID *Seated at end of table with the palm of the hand   resting on IR, thumb abducted, palmer surface of the hand in contact with IR,   ulnar deviate hand slightly, align longitudinal axis of the thumb with the   long axis of IR
Hand PA *adjust table for heighth *palmer surface down, center IR to MCP   jts. *adjust long axis of IR parallel with long axis of the hand and forearm   *CR-perpendicular to the 3rd MCP jt
Hand PA oblique *hand pronated, resting on IR *MCP jts form 45 degree angle with the   IR, can use a foam wedge *rotate pts hand laterally from pronated position,   elevate fingers to open jt spaces *CR-perpendicular to 3rd MCP joint
Hand fan lateral *hand in lateral position with ulnar aspect down *extend pts digits,   palmer surface perpendicular to the IR, center IR to MCP jts   *CR-perpendicular to 2nd digit MCP jt
Hand Extension Lateral *extend pts digits and adjust 1st digit @ right angle to the palm   *Center IR to MCP joints and adjust midline to be parallel with the long axis   of the hand and forearm *CR-perpendicular to the 2nd digit MCP jt
Wrist PA *palmer surface down *slightly arch hand @ the MCP jt (flexing the   wrist) *CR-perpendicular to midcarpal area
Wrist PA Oblique *rotate the wrist laterally until it forms an angle of 45 degrees   with the plane of the IR *CR-perpendicular to the midcarpal area (just distal   to the wrist)
Wrist Lateral *pt should flex elbow 90 degrees to rotate ulna to the lateral   position *CR- perpendicular to the wrist joint
Wrist Ulnar Deviation *wrist is on IR for a PA projection, turn the affected wrist outward   in extreme ulnar deviation *CR-perpendicular to the scaphoid
Wrist Radial Deviation *wrist is on the IR for a PA projection *turn wrist inward in   extreme ulnar deviation *CR-perpendicular to midcarpal area
Stecher Method-PA Axial (scaphoid) *adjust wrist on IR *CR-directed 20 degrees toward the elbow
Gaynor-Hart method (inferosuperior) *hyperextend the wrist and center to the IR, rotate hand slightly   toward the radial side, have pt grab the digits with opposite hand   *CR-directed to the palm of the hand@ 1″ distal to the base of the 3rd   metacarpal
Gaynor-Hart method (superioinferior) *pt should dorsiflex the wrist, lean forward and place the carpal   canal tangent to the IR *CR-Tangential to the carpal canal@ the midpoint of   the wrist. Can be angled toward the hand @ 25-30 degrees
Forearm AP *14×17 *supinate the hand and extend the elbow *make sure both jts   are included! *CR- perpendicular to the midpoint of the forearm
Forearm Lateral *flex elbow 90 degrees *Include both proximal and distal joints of   affected forearm, adjust the limb in a true lateral(thumb side of hand is up)   *CR- perpendicular to the midpoint of the forearm
Elbow AP *extend elbow, supinate hand, and center elbow joint *humeral   epicondyles are parallel with IR *CR- perpendicular to the elbow joint
Elbow Lateral *flex the elbow 90 degrees-olecranon process can be seen in profile   *places the humerus and elbow joint in same plane *CR-perpendicular to the   elbow jt.
Elbow AP Oblique *medially rotate or pronate the hand surface of the elbow is 45   degrees from IR *CR-perpendicular to elbow jt.
Distal Humerus-partial flexion AP *performed when pt cannot extend the elbow *depending on the degree   of flexion angle the CR distally into the jt *CR-perpendicular to the humerus
Proximal forearm-Partial flexion AP *seat pt high enough to permit the dorsal surface of the forearm to   rest on the table *CR-perpendicular to elbow jt and long axis of the forearm   (midpoint)
Jones Position- Acute Flexion *14×17 *fully flex elbow, long axis parallel with IR, center the IR   proximal to the epicondylar area of the humerus & adjust arm to prevent   rotation *CR-perpendicular to the humerus @ 2″ superior to the olecranon   process
Humerus AP *14×17, upright, 40″SID *abduct the arm slightly and supinate   the hand, epicondyles are parallel to IR *CR-perpendicular to the midportion   of the humerus and center of IR
Humerus Lateral *Internally rotate the arm, flex elbow 90 degrees and place hand on   hip or stomach *CR-perpendicular to midportion of the humerus and center of   the IR
Transthoracic Lateral-Lawrence Method *when trauma exists and cannot rotate or abduct *raise uninjured   arm, rest on head and elevate shoulder *elevation drops the injured side   *CR-perpendicular to IR entering midcoronal plane @ the level of the surgical   neck

 

Procedures Ch 10 thorax

Question Answer
the general shape of the human body that determines   the size, shape, position, and movement of the internal organs body habitus
bounded by the walls of the thorax and   extends from the superior thoracic aperture to the inferior thoracic aperture thoracic cavity
the top of the thoracic cavity where   structures enter the thorax superior thoracic aperture
the bottom of the thoracic cavity inferior thoracic aperture
separates the thoracic cavity from the   abdominal cavity diaphragm
The anatomic structures that pass from   the thorax to the abdomen go through openings in the: diaphragm
The thoracic cavity contains: * the lungs and heart * organs of the   respiratory, cardiovascular and lymphatic systems * the inferior portion of   the esophagus * the thymus gland
The 3 Chambers of the Thoracic Cavity: * pericardial cavity * right pleural   cavity * left pleural cavity
shiny, slippery, and delicate membranes   that line the thoracic cavities serous membranes
The space between the two pleural   cavities and contains all the thoracic structures except the lungs and   pleurae is called the: mediastinum
The respiratory system consists of: * trachea * bronchi * two lungs
a fibrous, muscular tube with 16 to 20   C-shaped cartilaginous rings embedded in its walls trachea
the last tracheal cartilage that is   elongated and has a hooklike process that divides the trachea into two lesser   tubes is called the: carina
Subdivisions of the Bronchial Tree: * Trachea * Primary Bronchi * Secondary   Bronchi * Tertiary Bronchi * Bronchioles * Terminal Bronchioles
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged   by diffusion within the walls of the: alveoli
the organs of respiration that comprise   the mechanism for introducing oxygen into the blood and removing carbon   dioxide from the blood lungs
these communicate with the terminal   bronchioles alveolar ducts
located at the end of the alveolar ducts alveolar sacs
these line the walls of the alveolar sacs alveoli
the lungs are made up of this light,   spongy, highly elastic substance parenchyma
What is the most common chest projection? PA
When performing a PA chest projection,   which body plane should be centered to the grid? Midsagittal
When performing an x-ray these 3 things   need to be totally aligned: * source * patient * image receptor
What is the SID for a PA chest   projection? 72 inches
At what level should the central ray,   perpendicular to the IR, be centered when performing a PA chest? at the level of T-7
How far above the shoulders should the   top of the IR be when performing a PA chest projection? 1.5 to 2 inches above the shoulders
What size image receptor should be used   when performing a chest x-ray? 14 x 17
True or False: Slight rotation from PA or   lateral projection causes considerable distortion of the heart shadow. True
Where vessels enter a lung hilum
superior portion of a lung apex
inferior border of thoracic cavity diaphragm
respiratory organ lung
major airway tube trachea
number of lobes in the right lung 3
side of lung where vessels enter medial
double-walled, serous membrane sac pleura
respiratory sacs alveoli
anterior bony wall of the mediastinum sternum
area between the lungs mediastinum
mediastinal organ heart
mediastinal blood vessel aorta
major section of a lung lobe
this lung has 2 lobes left
inferior part of a lung base
pertaining to the chest cavity thoracic
these branch from the trachea bronchi
separates a lung into lobes fissure
Which cavity contains the heart and   lungs? Thoracic
Which structure separates the thoracic   cavity from the abdominal cavity? diaphragm
Which part of the thoracic cavity   contains all thoracic organs except the lungs and pleurae? mediastinum
Which bony structure forms the anterior   border of the mediastinum? sternum
What mediastinal structure consists of   C-shaped cartilaginous rings? trachea
What area of the trachea divides into two   lesser tubes? carina
Which structures branch from the distal   end of the trachea? primary bronchi
Which primary bronchus is shorter and   wider than the other? right
What thoracic structures are the organs   of respiration? lungs
What is the name of the medial aspect of   each lung in which the primary bronchus enters? hilum
What is the name of the superior portion   of each lung? apex
Which structures are at the terminal end   of the respiratory system? alveoli
How many lobes are found in the right   lung? 3
How many lobes are found in the left   lung? 2
What determines how many degrees a   patient should rotate for the PA oblique projection LAO? the desired structures to be demonstrated   (more rotation when the heart is the primary interest)
When performing the PA oblique   projection, LAO to demonstrate lungs, how many degrees should the patient be   rotated? 45
When performing the oblique projection,   LAO position to demonstrate the heart and great vessels, how many degrees   should the patient be rotated? 55 to 60 (from 45 degrees, increase 10 to   20 degrees more)
With reference to patient respiration,   when should the exposure be made during a PA oblique projection? after 2nd full inspiration
To what level of the patient should the   central ray be directed during a PA oblique projection? at level of T-7
Which PA oblique projection provides the   best view of the left atrium and the entire left branch of the bronchial   tree? RAO position (right anterior oblique)
True or False: When viewing PA oblique   projection radiographs, the patient’s left side, should be toward the   viewer’s right side. True
True or False: The heart and mediastinal   structures should be clearly demonstrated within the lung field of the   elevated side in oblique images of 45 degree of body rotation. True
True or False: When viewing PA oblique   projection radiographs (LAO) position, the left lung should be partially   superimposed by the spine. True
Which side, the one closer to or the one   further from the IR is generally the side of interest? the side closest to the IR
Which AP oblique image, the RPO position   or the LPO position, demonstrates the maximum area of the left lung? LPO (Left posterior oblique)
What is the minimum recommended SID? 72 inches or 183 cm (2.54 x 72)
Which AP oblique projection produces an   image very similar to that produced by the PA oblique projection RAO   position? LPO (left posterior oblique)
What is the corresponding position to the   RPO position? LAO
What is the corresponding position to the   LPO position? RAO
How many degrees should the patient be   rotated for an AP oblique projection? 45 degrees
How far above the top of the shoulders   should the upper boarder of the IR be placed? 1.5 to 2 inches above the vertebral   prominens or about 5 inches above the jugular notch
What breathing instructions should be   given to the patient for an AP oblique projection? hold breath in after 2nd inspiration
To what level of the patient should the   central ray be directed when performing an AP oblique projection? about 3 inches below the jugular notch
What is the recommended SID for an AP   chest projection? 72 or 60 inches depending on equipment   limitations
What body plane should be centered to the   midline of the IR when performing an AP chest projection? midsagittal plane
With reference to the patient, where   should the IR be placed when performing an AP chest projection? 1.5 to 2 inches above the relaxed   shoulders
If the patient’s condition permits, how   should the arms and shoulders be positioned when performing an AP chest projection? with elbows flexed, pronate the hands and   place them on the hips to draw the scapula laterally
Why should the patient perform the   recommended breathing instructions? to ensure maximum expansion of the lungs
List 3 evaluation criteria that indicate the patient was properly   positioned for an AP chest projection. * trachea should be seen in the midline * the lung fields should be   seen from the apices to the costophrenic angles * the medial portion of the   clavicals should be equidistant from the vertebral column

 

Large Intestine Ch17

Question Answer
Two Projections that are NOT essential for Large Intestine Axial Chassard-Lapine method AND R/L Lateral Decubitus
IR size for PA (and centered to ___) 14×17 lengthwise; iliac crests
IR size for PA Axial (and IR centered to ___) 14×17 or 10×12 lengthwise; illiac crests
IR size for PA Oblique RAO or LAO 14×17 lengthwise
IR size for R or L Lateral (and centered to ___) 10×12 lengthwise; ASIS
IR size for AP (IR centered to ___) 14×17 lengthwise: level of iliac crests
IR size for AP Axial (centered to ___) 14×17 or 10×12 lengthwise; 2 in above iliac crests
IR size for AP Oblique LPO or RPO (centered to___) 14×17 lengthwise; iliac crests
IR size for AP or PA R or L lateral Decubitus (centered to ___) 14×17 lengthwise; iliac crests
IR size for Lateral R or L Ventral Decubitus (centered to?) 14×17 lengthwise; iliac crests
IR size for Axial Chassard-Lapine Method (centered to?) 12×14 lengthwise; midline of pelvis
Respiration phase for large intestine Projections SUSPEND
If a patient is on their right side with a vertical grid device in   contact with the patient’s back OR abdomen, what projection is this called? AP or PA Right Lateral Decubitus
If a patient is on their left side with a vertical grid device in   contact with the patient’s back OR abdomen, what projection is this called? AP or PA LEFT lateral decubitus
In which position do you place the patient prone with their R or L   side against the vertical grid device? Lateral R or L Ventral Decubitus
When would the IR be placed to a lower level to compensate for the   drop of bowel bc of gravity? in upright projections
Patient is seated on table for this projection Axial Chassard-Lapine Method
What plane of the body is closest to the midline of the table when   using the Axial Chassard-Lapine method? Midcoronal
Use Trendelenberg if nec. for this projection PA
Why is trendelenberg used for PA? helps separate redundant & overlapping loops of bowel by   “spilling” them out of pelvis
What is the degree of obliquity for large intestine? 35-45 degrees
CR for PA Axial (and centered at) 30-40 degrees caudad; ASIS
CR for a PA Oblique: Perpendicular to IR& entering approx ___   in. lateral to mid- line of body on ___ side at level of ___. Perpendicular to IR& entering approx 1-2″ ; elevated ;   iliac crest
What substance is produced by the JG apparatus and under what   conditions is it produced? when blood pressure falls too low (to filtrate through glomerulus)   JG releases (enzyme) renin (which activates protein angiotensin)
cone-shaped structures renal pyramids
funnel shaped basin (upper end of ureter) renal pelvis
What is the functional unit of the kidney called? nephron: a tiny coiled tube w/a bulb (bowmans capsule) at one end
how many nephrons are in each kidney? how many miles would they   make? 1 million ; 75 miles
afferent atriole supplies blood
efferent atriole carries blood away
renin raises blood pressure purposely
urea waste produced by the liver and ridden by kidneys
Kidney functions rids waste maintains water balance acid-base balance maintains blood   pressure red blood cell production
The 1st step in urine formation is glomerular filtration. What is   this? movement of materials under pressure from the blood into the   bowman’s capsule
What are the four processes invloved in the formation of urine? 1. glomerular filtration (passes from blood to nephron) 2. tubular   reabsorption (keeps useful stuff and redeposits it into blood) 3. Tubular   Secretion (balance pH) 4. countercurrent mechanism (concetrates urine)
What is the name of the tube that carries urine from the kidney to   the bladder? ureters
What is the name of the tube that carries urine from the bladder to   the outside? urethra
another name for urination micturition
What are the organs of the urinary system? Kidneys Ureters Bladder (KUB)
The kidneys are located in the retroperitoneal space. Where is this   space? behind the peritoneum
Where do you place support to keep the pelvis lateral? between knees (lateral projection)
What plane is centered to the grid for an AP Axial? midsagittal
Elevated the patient on radiolucent support when using a ___   position decubitus
For what projection would you shift the bucky transversely forward? Axial Chassard-Lapine Method in order to get the center of the grid   as close as possible to the midcoronal plane of the patient sitting on the   table.
Why are the thighs abducted on the Axial Chassard-Lapine method? So thighs wont intefere with flexion of body
For what prjection would you ask patient to lean forward and grasp   ankles? Axial Chassard-Lapine method
CR for PA Perp to IR iliac crest
CR for Lateral Perp to IR midcoronal plane at ASIS
CR for AP Perp to iliac crest
CR for AP Axial, for demonstration of what? 30-40 degrees cephalad 2 inches BELOW ASIS Directed to enter the   inferior margin of pubic symphysis when a collimated image is desired for   demonstration of rectosigmoid region
CR for AP Oblique (LPO or RPO) Perpendicular to IR to enter approx 1-2″ lateral to midline of   body on elevated side at level of iliac crests
CR for AP/PA R or L Lateral Decubitus HORIZONTAL and perp to IR iliac crest
CR for lateral R or L Ventral Decubitus HORIZONTAL and perp to IR iliac crests
CR for Axial Chassard-Lapine Method Perpendicular thru lumbosacral region at level of greater   trochanters
Demonstrates entire colon with patient prone PA
Demonstrates rectosigmoid area of colon PA Axial; AP Axial
Demonstrates the right colic flexure, ascending portion of colon,   & sigmoid portion of colon PA Oblique RAO; AP Oblique LPO
Demonstrates left colic flexure and descending colon PA Oblique LAO; AP Oblique RPO
Demonstrates rectal and distal sigmoid colon Lateral R or L
Demonstrates entire colon with patient supine AP
Right lateral decubitus Demonstrates AP or PA projection of the   contrast-filled colon. This pos best shows the “up” medial side of   the ascending colon & lateral side of the descending colon when the colon   is inflated w/air AP or PA RIGHT Lateral Decubitus
Demonstrates AP or PA projection of the contrast-filled colon. This   pos best shows the “up” lateral side of the ascending colon &   medial side of the descending colon when the colon is inflated w/air AP or PA LEFT Lateral Decubitus
Demonstrates a lateral proj of contrast-filled colon. This position   best demonstrates the “up” posterior portions of the colon & is   most valuable in double contrast exams R or L Ventral Decubitus
Demonstrates the rectum, rectosigmoid junction, & sigmoid in the   axial projection Axial Chassard-Lapine Method

 

Hand Bontrager

Question Answer
What are the 3 types of bone in the hand? Phalanges, Metacarpals and Carpals
What are the 3 types of phalanges Proximal, Middle, Distal
What is the joint in the thumb? Interphalangeeal (IP Joint)
What is the joint between the base of the   proximal phalanx and the metacarpal? Metacarpophlangeal Joint (MCP)
What is the joint in between the carpals? Carpmetacarpal (CMC)
What bone does the scaphoid articulate   with? Radius
What bone does the lunate articulate   with? Radius
What are the two joints between the   radius and ulna? Proximal radioulnar and distal radioulnar
Where is the head of the ulna located? Near the wrist
What is the kvp for upper limb? 50-70
What size focal spot should be used? small
What is a Barton’s Fx? dislocation of the posterior lip of the   distal radius
What is a Bennett’s Fx? @ base of 1st metacarpal
What is a Boxer’s Fx? @ fifth metacarpal
What is a Colles’ Fx? Fx in distal radius when the fragment is   displaced posteriorly
What is a Smith’s Fx? Fx of distal radius where fragment is   displaced anteriorly
For the fingers, where is the PA, PA   oblique and Lateral centered? PIP
For the thumb, where should the CR be   centered for the AP, PA Oblique and Lateral Projections 1st MCP
Which projection should be used for a   Bennett’s Fx? AP Modified Robert’s
How and where is the CR placed for a   Modified Robert’s 15degrees towards the wrist at the 1st   CMC
Where is the CR for a PA Hand? 3rd MCP joint
Where is the CR for a “fan”   hand? 2nd MCP joint
What is the kVp for a lateral hand? 55-65
Where is the CR for a Lateral   Extension/Flexion? 2nd to 5th MCP
What is the kVp for Wrist projections? 60+/-6
Where is the CR for a PA/AP wrist? Midcarpal area
What wrist projection is best to show a   Barton’s, Colles’ or Smith’s Fx? Lateral-Lateromedial Projection
Where is the CR for a PA and PA Axial   Scaphoid At scaphoid and at 10 degree proximal   angle towards elbow
What type of joint is the IP joint? Hinge
What type of joint is the MCP joint? Ellipsoidal
What type of joint is the CMC1 joint? Saddle
What type of joint is the CMC2-5 joint? Gliding
What is the cast conversion for   fiberglass? Increase mAs 25-30 and kVp 3-4
What is the cast conversion for dry   plaster? Increase mAs 50-60 and kVp 5-7
What is the cast conversion for wet   plaster? Increase mAs 100 and kvp 8-10
What is a subluxation? partial dislocation
What is the most common fx of the distal   radius and ulna? Torus or Buckle

 

Projections of the Skull, Facial bones, and Sinuses

Question Answer
MSP midsagittal plane
IPL interpupillary line
OML orbitomeatal line
AML acanthiomeatal line
LML lipmeatal line
EAM external acoustic meatus
IOML infraorbitaomeatal line
MML mentomeatal line
What is the angle difference in an   average adult skull between the OML and the IOML?
What is the angle difference in an   average adult skull between the OML and the GML?
Skull shape where the petrous ridges   project anteriorly and medially at an angle of 47° mesocephalic
Skull shape where petrous ridges form a   wider angle with the MSP of 54° brachycephalic
Skull shape where petrous ridges form a   more narrow angle with the MSP of 40° dolichocephalic
Are orbits always symmetric in size and   shape? no
T/F: Lower jaw is asymmetric true
Are nasal bones and cartilage symmetrical   or asymmetrical? asymmetrical
Give 2 reasons why the upright image of   the skull will increase diagnostic value in order of importance 1. AIR FLUID LEVELS (indicating a basal   fracture) and 2. Part of interest closer to IR (better detail/no air gap or magnification)
When examining the paranasal sinuses,   what should be the patient position? upright
What is the number one cause of for   repeat examinations? motion/rotation of patient because they   are in an uncomfortable position. <work quickly>
To prevent lateral recumbent rotation of   the patient, make sure the body is ___ to the table parallel
To prevent tilt, make sure the long axis   of the cc-spine is at the level of the ___ ___ ___. mid foramen magnum
Which two body habitus may need chest   elevation for a PA or Oblique skull view? asthenic or hyposthenic (unless they have   a boob job)
Which body habitus may need support under   the head to keep the IR/part relationship correcton a PA skull? hypersthenic (because they are large and   in prone position their head may be in the air)
How do you shield for infants and   children when performing any skull/facial bone exam(3 places)? 1. Thyroid 2. Thymus gland 3. Gonads   (shielding the first two also help with immobilization
What will indicate that there is NO ROTATION   on a lateral projection of the skull? superimposed orbital plates
What is the side of interest on a lateral   skull? Part closest or farthest from the IR? closest
Lateral Skull: which plane is parallel to   the IR? MSP
Name four positioning errors 1.wrong tube angle 2.tilt 3.excessive   flexion/extension 4.rotation
What is a CLEAR INDICATION of a basal   skull fracture? air-fluid levels in the nasal sinuses
Name 3 skull fractures basal, depressed, linear
What focal spot size is used on all skull   exams? small
What is the name of the Caldwell   projection? PA Axial 15°
What is the name of the Grashey   Projection? AP Axial (Towne)
Name the routine views of the skull(there   are 4) PA 0°, Lateral, PA Axial 15° (caldwell),   AP Axial Towne (Grashey)
Name the special views of the Skull Submentovertex, PA Axial-HAAS, PA Axial   25-30°
What is the only skull projection that   uses a crosswise IR? PA Axial 15°
Enter/Exit point for PA 0° skull OcciputàGlabella
Enter/Exit point for Lateral skull 2” above EAMà2”above EAM on other side (SAME)
Enter/Exit point for PA Axial 15°   Caldwell OcciputàNasion
Enter/Exit point for AP Axial Towne   (Grashey) between the 2 frontal tuberositiesàforamen magnum
Enter/Exit point for Submentovertex 3/4” anterior to EAM between mandibleàvertex
Enter/Exit point for PA Axial HAAS 1/2” below inionà1/2” above nasion
Enter/Exit point for PA Axial 25-30° occiputànasion
What is the main area to look for on a PA   0° skull exam? Frontal bone
What is the main area to look for on a   Lateral Skull? Parietal bone
What is the main area to look for on the   skull PA Axial 15° Caldwell? frontal bone
What is the main area to look for on the   skull AP Axial Towne (grashey)? occipital bone
What is the main area to look for on the   submentovertex skull projection? base of skull
What is the main area to look for on the   PA Axial HAAS? occipital bone
What is the main area to look for on the   PA Axial 25-30° skull? frontal bone
What IR size is used for the facial   bones? 8×10
What IR size is used for the Skull? 10×12
Name the 3 routine views of the Facial   bones 1.Lateral, 2.Parietocanthial (Waters),   3.PA Axial (Caldwell)
Name the 2 Special Views of the facial   bones 1.Acanthioparietal (reverse waters),   2.Modified Parietocanthial (Modified Waters)
What is the main area to look for on a   Lateral Projection of the facial bones? superimposed facial bones
Enter/Exit point on the Lateral Facial   bone zygomaàzygoma
What line is perpendicular to the IR on a   Lateral face projection? IPL
What is the only difference between skull   and facial projections? the entire skull is shown on a skull   projection and not on a facial projection (hence the smaller IR size used for   facial)
Which projection will give you an oblique   projection of the facial bones? parietoacanthial (Waters)
What is the SID on all Skull and Facial   Projections? 48”
What are the patient positions used for   the parietoacanthial(Waters) view? erect or PRONE
Which projection calls for the neck to be   adjusted so that the OML forms a 37° angle with the IR? Parietaoacanthial (Waters)
Which projection calls for the neck to be   adjusted so that the OML forms a 55° angle with the IR? Modified Parietoacanthial (Modified   Waters)
On the Parietoacanthial (Waters), what   LINE should be perpendicular to the IR? MML
On the Parietoacanthial (Waters), what   PLANE should be perpendicular to the IR? MSP
Enter/Exit for the Parietoacanthial   (waters) halfway between occiput and vertexàacanthion
How is the tube angled on the   parietoacanthial (Waters) view? none, silly
On the Modified Parietoacanthial   (Modified Waters), what LINE should be perpendicular to the IR? LML
On the Modified Parietoacanthial   (Modified Waters), what PLANE should be perpendicular to the IR? MSP
Enter/Exit point for Modified   Parietoacanthial (Modified Waters) occiputàacanthion
How is the tube angled on a Modified   Parietoacanthial (Modified Waters)? none, silly
How is the tube angled for the skull PA   Axial (Caldwell)? 15° caudad
How is the tube angled for the Skull AP   Axial Towne (Grashey)? 30° caudad for the OML or 37°caudad for   the IOML
Is there a tube angulation for the Skull   Submentovertex projection? usually none UNLESS patient can’t   hyperextend the neck
How is the tube angled for the PA Axial   HAAS Skull? 25° cephalad
How is the tube angled for the PA Axial   25-30° skull? 25-30° caudad
What is the main area of interest on the   Modified Parietoacanthial (Modified Waters)? orbital floors
Where are the petrous ridges shown on the   Modified Parietoacanthial (Modified Waters)? lower ½ of maxillary sinuses
What type of fractures is does the   modified waters method tend to show best? blowout fractures (inferior displacement   of the orbital floor) note: and maxillary sinuses
Why has the Modified Waters been   nicknamed the “shallow” waters view? less extension of the neck is used to   increase the angulation of the OML by placing it more perpendicular to the IR   (55° angle instead of the regular 37°)
What is the difference in patient   position from the regular waters view when performing the Acanthoparietal   (reverse waters)? patient is supine rather than prone   (TRAUMA)
Enter/Exit for the Acanthoparietal   (reverse waters) acanthionàmidway between the vertex and the occiput
Name five function of the sinuses 1. Resonating chamber for voice, 2.   Decrease weight of skull, 3. Warms/moisturizes inhaled air, 4. Acts as shock   absorber during trauma, 5. Possibly controls immune system
Why are we supposed to delay the exposure   on the sinuses? to ensure fluid has settled in the cavity
Name the three routine views of the   sinuses 1. Lateral, 2. PA Axial (Caldwell   Method), 3. Parietoacanthial (Waters Method)
Name the two special views of the sinuses 1. Parietoacanthial (Waters Open-mouth   Modification) (PIRIE), 2. Submentovertex
Which sinuses can be demonstrated at   birth? maxillary
Which two sinuses can be radiographed   between ages 6-7? frontal and sphenoidal
Which sinuses develop during puberty, but   aren’t complete until age 17-18? ethmoidal air cells
What are the largest sinuses? maxillary
Which sinuses are pyramidal in shape? maxillary
The maxillary sinuses appear rectangular   on the ___ projection lateral
T/F the maxillary sinuses onlt have 2   walls FALSE they only have 3
T/F Maxillary sinuses are symmetrical true
What are the second largest sinuses? frontal sinuses
T/F The frontal sinuses are symmetrical False they vary considerably in size and   form
Is it possible for a person to not have   any frontal sinuses? yes
Is it possible for a person to not have   any maxillary sinuses? no, everyone has them at birth
How many ethmoidal sinuses are there? 2
Name the ethmoidal air cells anterior, middle, posterior
How many anterior and middle air cells   exist in the ethmoid sinses? 2-8
The posterior air cells of the ethmoid   sinuses vary in number from ___-___ or more? 2-6
T/F The sphenoid sinuses are symmetric false
What can overpenetration of the sinuses   do? diminish/obliterate existing pathologic   conditions
What can underpenetration of the sinuses   do? trick you into seeing pathologies that DO   NOT exist
Why should the mAs and kVp be carefully   balanced? to show both soft tissue structures AND   the bony ones
Who pointed out the value of   demonstrating the sinuses in the upright position? Cross and Flecker
What is respiration for the examination   of the skull, facial bones, and sinuses? suspend
What is fluid in the sinuses called? exudate
What is the most effective way to shield   a patient from unnecessary radiation? collimation
For facial and skull projections the kVp   is at least above 70 (usually between 70-80). What is the kVp range for   sinuses? 60-70 kVp
Enter/Exit point of the Lateral sinuses (horizontal) ½-1inch behind outer canthusàexit same???
For pre-op, what is the SID suggested for   the lateral sinues and why? 72 inches; to minimize magnification and   distortion
On the lateral sinuses projection, you   can see ALL four sinus groups. Which one of these is the most important? sphenoidal sinus
With the PA Axial Sinus (Caldwell   method), the OML forms a ___° with the IR or OML is perpendicular and you can   tilt the IR ___°. 15; 15
What is the main area wanted for the PA   Axial sinus (Caldwell method)? frontal sinuses (lying superior to the   frontonasal suture) and to demonstrate anterior ethmoidal air cells
What is the goal of the Parietoacanthial   Projection of the sinues (waters method)? to hyperextend the patient’s neck just   enough to place the dense petrosae immediately below the maxillary sinus   floors.
What happens if the neck isn’t extended   enough for the Parietoacanthial Projection of the sinuses (waters method)? the petrosae get projected of the   maxillary sinuses and obscure pathological conditions
What happens if the neck is extended too   much for the Parietoacanthial Projection of the sinuses (waters method)? the maxillary sinuses are foreshortened   and the antral floors are not well demonstrated
What is most important part sought for   the Parietoacanthial Projection of the sinues (waters method)? maxillary sinus
The Parietoacanthial Open-Mouth Waters   Method provides an excellent demonstration of the ___ sinuses projected through   the ___ ___. sphenoidal; open mouth
The submentovertex projection of the   skull uses a 10×12 image receptor. What size IR does the Submentovertex   projection of the sinuses use? 8×10
What is the main area of interest when   imaging the Submentovertex projection of the sinus? sphenoid sinus

 

Proximal Femur and Pelvic Girdle

Question Answer
The pelvic girdle consists of 2 hip bones
The Pelvis consists of both hip bones, sacrum, coccyx
The hip is made up of the ilium, ischium, and pubic bone
What is the area between the greater and lesser   trochanter called on the ANTERIOR aspect of the proximal femur intertrochanteric LINE
What is the area between the greater and lesser   trochanter called on the POSTERIOR aspect of the proximal femur intertrochanteric CREST
A true AP of the hip require how much rotation? 15-20 degree internal rotation
kV for the AP Pelvis, AP Hip, and Lateral Hip is 75-85kV
Center for the AP Pelvis is centered 2″ inferior to level of ASIS (crest   1.5″ below top of IR)
How are you doing? EXCELLENT!
What size IR for a AP Pelvis? 14×17 CW
T/F Lesser trochanters of the femur is included   in the AP Pelvis True
The superior ramus is part of the pubis
The inferior ramus is part of the Ischium
The Judet method demonstrates the Acetabulum
Center for AP hip (with hardware) 1-2″ distal to neck or femur (all of   hardware must be demonstrated)
Lateral of the hip is also called Frog or Modified Cleaves or Lauenstein method
Trauma Hip most often used is called Danelius-Miller or Cross-table lateral or   Axiolateral (inferiorsuperior)
The modified axiolateral trauma hip when both   hips can’t be moved.is called Clements-Nakayama method
How much should the femur be abducted for the   Cleaves method for the hip? 40-45degrees
How much should the femur be abducted for the   Lauenstein method for the hip? 90degrees
The AP axial outlet projection for the pelvis   requires the CR to be ______for females and _______ for males 20-35 and males 30-45degrees
The AP inlet projection for the pelvic ring   requires the CR angle to be 40deg caudad
A male pelvis has an ______ angle while a female   pelvis has a ________ less than 90 degrees acute, female greater than   90 degrees obtuse
Three differences in a female and male pelvis are males have narrower , deeper and less flared,   angle of the pubic arch is less than 90deg, shape of the inlet is more   narrower and more oval or heart shape
What are some important positioning landmarks for   the pelvis iliac crest, ASIS, greater trochanter, symphysis   pubis, ischial Tuberosity
The pelvis is separated into ______ superior to   the inlet and ________pelvis is a cavity that is surrounded by bony   structures that is of great importance during birthing process greater false pelvis, lesser true pelvis forms   birthing canal
If the femoral neck is foreshortened and the   lesser trochanters are in profile medially on a radiograph what is probable   cause for positioning external rotation of the leg and foot
When taking a patient history for a hip x-ray it   is important to ask about a prosthesis or any hip surgery for what two   reasons so you can position patient without injuring   site, and to make sure you center lower to include all hardware
What pathology is best demonstrated with the   judet method acetabular fractures
Where is the CR placed for a unilateral frog-leg   projection mid femoral neck
The cavity in the hipbone that articulates with   the femoral head is called the acetabulum
The hip bone consists of what three parts? Ischium, Pubic bone, and Ilium
The ilium and sacrum articulates at the _________   joint Iliosacral
The junction of what 2 bones forms the obturator   foramen of the pelvis? Ischium and Pubic bone
Name the bones that make up the pelvic girdle Right and Left Hip bones
Name the bones that make up the pelvis in an   adult Sacrum, Coccyx, Right and Left Hip
The prominent ridge extending between the   tochanters at the base of the neck on the posterior surface of the femur is   the intertrochanteric crest
Name one or more structures that may be helpful   in order to evaluate rotation on an AP pelvis radiograph (not proximal femur) Symetry of the Obturator formina or Ischial   spines, and alignment of the Coccyx and Pubis symphisis.
How much do you medially rotate the feet and   lower limbs to place the femoral necks parallel with the plane of the IR on   an AP projection of the pelvis? 15-20 degrees
What position, projection or method is useful in   diagnosing fractures of the acetabulum? Judet (axiolateral)
What is the projection of the Modified Cleaves   often called? Frog leg
Do you see the lesser trochanter with the   Modified Cleaves method? Yes
What projection/position of the hip best   demonstrates the greater trochanter in profile? AP hip/pelvis
The angulation of the tube for the axiolateral   projection (Danelius-Miller Method) is angled perpendicular to what   structure? (not the film) Femoral Neck (and IR)
Where is the central directed for the unilateral   frog-leg? Femoral Neck

 

Upper EXT and Shoulder Girdle

Question Answer
Acromion Process A large rounded projection that can be felt on   the superior suface of the scapula
Axilla the arm pit
Bursitis Inflammation of the bursa
Digits Fingers and Thumbs
Carpus, Carpal 8 short bones of the wrist; pertaining to these   bones
Clavicle The collar bone
Coracoid Process
Fat Pad Sign Radiographic evidence of displacement of the fat   pad in the joint region of the elbow that indicates a fracture involving the   elbow joint.
Glenoid Process The lateral portion of the scapula that forms the   socket of the sholder joint
Humerous the long bone of the upper arm
Joint Effusion Increase fluid in the joint capsule
Metacarpal A bone of the hand
Olecranon Process A posterior projection at the proximal end of the   ulna; the FUNNY BONE or CRAZY BONE
Osteoarthritis A Dengenrative joint disease
Osteoblastic Referring to the osteoblasts or a disease that   results in increased bone formation
Osteolytic Referring to a disease that causes bone   destruction
Osteophyte Enlarged, deformed portions of the bone, aging,   that results in bones becoming porous, brittle, and mor radiolucent
Osteomyelitis Inflammation of the bone caused by pathogenic   organism
Phalanx (PL Phalanges) A long bone of the finger or toe
Radial Deviation Movement of the hand toward the radial side of   the wrist
Radius The thick, shorter long bone located laterally in   the forearm
Scapula The shoulder blade
Sesamoid Bone A small, flat, oval bone within a tendon that is   not counted amoung the bones of the body.
Tendinitis Inflammation of the tendon
Ulna The thin, longer long bone located medially in   the forearm
Ulnar Deviation Movement of the hand toward the ulnar side of the   wrist.

 

Upper Extremities

Question Answer
kV for AP or AP Axial Clavicle 65-75kV
Centering for Clavicle perpendicular to mid clavicle
kV for AP or Lateral Scapula 70-80kV
AP Axial of Clavicle, the CR is angled   _____? 15-30 degrees cephalad
Bilateral AC joints require what two   positions? with and without 5-8lbs of weights
Name the three angles of the Scapula Superior, Inferior, and Lateral angles
Name the two fossa on the Dorsal Scapula Supraspinous and Infraspinous Fossa
The two views of the Scapula AP and Lateral
Criteria for good Scapula image entire scapula, lateral border free of   ribs and lungs, optimal exposure factors
SID for Scapula and Clavicle 40 inches
SID for AC Joints 72 inches
Centering for AC Joints 1 inch above Jugular Notch
True/False: Bilat. AC joints require   markers- R, L, with, without TRUE
True/False: Bilat. AC Joints can be done   WITHOUT a grid TRUE
Name the 3 arm positions that can be used   for a lateral scapula behind back, across chest, over head.
True/False: Humerus should be   superimposed over the scapula FALSE
Name Criteria for lateral Scapula entire scapula,in profile,separated from   ribs, humerous not superimposed over area of interest.
True/False: Respiration is not important   for a AP Scapula False – Should be slow respiration
True/False: Respiration is not important   for a Lateral Scapula False – Should be suspended respiration
Name the Trauma Shoulder positions AP neutral rotation, Transthoracic   lateral or the Scapular Y view
Name the Routine Shoulder positions AP with external and internal rotation
Another name for Inferosuperior axial   (Shoulder) Lawrence method
Another name for Superoinferior axial   (Shoulder) Hobbs modification
Another name for Posterior Oblique-   glenoid cavity (Shoulder) Grashey method
Another name for Tangential projection –   intertubercal groove(Shoulder) Fisk modification
Another name for Transthoracic lateral   (Shoulder) Lawrence method
Routine positions for the Humerus are: AP and Lateral
Trauma positions for the Humerus are: Lateral for distal Humerus, Transthoracic   lateral for proximal Humerus, Y-view for proximal Humerus
Criteria for good AP Humerus entire Humerus, Greater tubercle in   profile, epicondyles in profile, exposure factors.
Criteria for good Lateral Humerus entire Humerus, Lesser tubercle in   profile, epicondyles are superimposed, exp. factors.
Type of joint: Scapulohumeral Spheroidal (ball and socket)
Type of joint: Sternoclavicular Plane (gliding)
Type of joint: Acromioclavicular Plane (gliding)
Describe epicondyles and tubercles with   Shoulder AP External rotation Epicondyles are parallel to IR, Greater   tub in profile laterally, Lesser tub anterior
Describe epicondyles and tubercles with   Shoulder AP Internal rotation Epicondyles are perpendicular to IR,   Greater tub anterior, Lesser tub in profile medially
Centering point for AP shoulder? 1″ inferior of Coracoid process   (Scapulohumeral joint)
Where is the Coranoid Process? The proximal end of the Ulna, articulates   with the Trochlea of the Humerus
Where is the Coracoid Process? Superior border of Scapula and inferior   to the Distal end of the Clavicle
What carpal bone articulates with the   radius? Scaphoid
What carpal bone articulates with the   radius and the capitate? Lunate
Which carpal bone is proximal to the   first metacarpal (thumb)? Trapezium
Which carpal bone is proximal to the 2nd   metacarpal? Trapezoid
Which carpal bone is proximal to the 3rd   metacarpal? Capitate
Which carpal bone is proximal to the 4th   and 5th metacarpal? Hamate
The metacarpals are concave on the   anterior and convex on the posterior. True
The wrist joint is an ellipsoidal joint   which is the most freely moveable of synovial joints. True
What is the joint called where the radius   articulates with the scaphoid and the lunate? radiocarpal joint
What is the average range of kV for the   fingers hand and wrist? 50-65 kV
Where do you center for a PA hand and an   oblique hand? 3rd MCP
Where do you center for a lateral of the   hand? 2nd MCP
What is another name for the Norgaard   Method and what is it used to diagnose? Ball Catcher’s Position – diagnoses   rheumatoid arthritis
Where do you center for a PA and oblique   wrist? mid carpal area
WHere do you center for a lateral wrist? Perpendicular to wrist joint
How much of a CR angle is used for the   Stecher Method (Scaphoid)? 20 degrees up hand centered over the   scaphoid
Where do you ceneter on the thumb? At 1st MCP joint
What position is used for an oblique of   the thumb? PA hand
WHat needs to be demonstrated on an exam   of the thumb? Entire thumb including the 1st MCP
Where do you center for the 2nd-5th   digits? PIP joint
The radial head is proximal/near the   elbow on the lateral or thumb side. True
The ulnar head is distal/near the wrist   on the medial side. True
When does the radius cross over the ulna? during pronation
When do the radius and ulna show no   superimposition? external rotation (oblique with lateral   rotation)
What does a true lateral of the forearm   show? THe proximal head and neck of the radius,   the radial tuberosity, and the trochlear notch.
Does the forearm need to show both   joints? YES
What exam shows the coronoid process free   of superimposition? AP oblique (medial rotation)
Acute flexion is also called? Jones method
Technical factors for the Shoulder?   (kV/mAs) Medium kV (70-80) High mA/low exposure   time
The lesser tuberosity of the humerus is   seen in profile with the arm in ________ . Internal rotation
Which part of the scapula does the   humerus articulate with? glenoid fossa
To demonstrate the shoulder and upper   humerus in anatomical position, the arm should be rotated __________ Externally
The AP internal rotation of the shoulder   places the humerus _______ in the position Lateral
What is the centering point for AP   shoulder WITH external rotation? 1″ inferior of the coraCoid process
Which shoulder position shows the lesser   tubercle in profile? AP with internal rotation
Another name for inferosuperior, axial projection   of the shoulder is? Lawrence method
In the inferiosuperior, axial projection   of the shoulder, the ______ tubercle is in profile Lesser
The AP shoulder with neutral rotation is   done for? Trauma
When doing the humerus how many, and   which joints are demonstrated? 2, Scapulohumeral and elbow joint   (includes humeralulna, humeralradial, and proximal radioulnar joints.)
When doing a dislocated shoulder exam,   what positions would be performed? AP shoulder with neutral rotation and the   Y view
What is the centering point for a   transthoracic lateral of the humerus? surgical neck
What is the Grashey method and how much   is the patient rotated? AP oblique of the shoulder, 35degrees   toward the affected side
What is the position of the scapula when   doing a Y view? Lateral
The Grashey method is used to   demonstrate? profile of the glenoid cavity
For the oblique of the Hand, what do you   use to measure your rotation and what is the degree? The styloid processes should be at a   45degree angle
Why are the fingers parallel to the IR   and not bent in a hand exam? to show joint spaces
What should you do with the fingers in a   wrist projection? curl them, to move the carpals closer to   the IR
What is the name of the furthest lateral   carpal on the proximal row? Schapoid
Name the carpals in order, proximal row   first. Schaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrium, Pisiform,   Trapezium, Trapazoid, Capitate, Hamate
Ok Hotshot, what are the OLD names the   carpals in order ? Navicular, Semilunar, Triangular,   Pisiform, Greater Multiangular, Lesser Multiangular, Os magnum, Unciform
WOW, you are good! Yeah, I know you know.
In the anatomical position, what is it   called when the hand is moved medially, but the arm is kept straight? Ulnar deviation
R______ A_______ is a common pathology   that hand and wrist exams are ordered for. Rhumatoid Artharitis
How many bones are in the hand? 27
How many bones in the Phalanges? 14
How many carpals? 8
What kind of joint is the 1st MCP? Sellar (saddle)
What kind of joint is the DIP? Ginglymus (hinge)
What kind of joint are the intercarpals? Plane (Gliding)
What kind of joint is the Wrist (carpal   to ulna and radius)? Ellipsoid (condyloid)
What ind of joint is the proximal and   distal radioulnar joints? Trochoid (pivot)
What kinda of joint is the elbow? Ginglymus (hinge)
kV AP hand? 50-60
kV Lateral hand? 55
kV Oblique hand 55-65
kV wrist and trauma wrist? 55-65 and 50-70
Define Subluxion partial dislocation
Define Sprain rupture or tearing of ligaments
Define Contusion bruise without fracture
Define Greenstick incomplete fracture
fx means? fracture
Baseball mallet fx is? fx of distal phalynx
Boxer’s fx is? broken knuckle
Name the fat pads of the elbow anterior fat pad, posterior fat pad,   supinator fat stripe.
To obtain a lateral forearm: Thumb side must be up & forearm &   humerus must be in the same plane
To clearly see the olecranon process in   profile, which position should be used? AP Oblique w/medial rotation
For some soft tissue injuries the lateral   elbow is only flexed: 30-35 degrees
The proximal radioulnar joint is   considered a: pivot joint and is diarthrodial
For a lateral view of the elbow to be   accurate, what should be superimposed? epicondyles of the humerus
For a trauma elbow, how many AP   projections should be taken 2
Which projection of the elbow   superimposes the forearm and the humerus? AP projection;acute flexion
Are both joints usually visualized when   taking a forearm on an 11 x 14? YES
Which ligament of the wrist extends from   the styloid process of the radius to the lateral aspect of the scaphoid &   trapezium bones? radial collateral ligament
The two important fat stripes around the   wrist joint are: scaphoid fat stripe & pronator fat   stripe
Pathology revealed in a AP forearm? Fractures, dislocations,and pathologic   processes such as osteomyelitis or arthritis.
Describe Positioning for an AP forearm Entire limb in the same planeShoulder at   table levelAlign and centre forearm to long axis of IRSupinate hand (2nd to   5th metacarpal heads against IR)Elbow fully extendedCheck the humeral   epicondyles are equidistant from the IR
A forearm film is hung from which end? from the fingers…or wrist end.
A shoulder is hung from which end? from the shoulder.
You are _______ Amazing!
Rotation of the forearm is shown by ? separation of ulna and radius(lat. rot.)   or MORE THAN SLIGHT superimposition (med. rot.) or pronation- if radius is   rotated across ulna (hand not supinated)
Name wrist fat pads? scaphoid fat stripe and pronator fat   stripe
Name Elbow fat pads? Anterior fat pad, posterior fat pad,   supinator fat stripe.
Define Bursitis Inflammation of the bursae (fluid filled   sacs that enclose joints)
Define Osteroarthritis degenerative joint disease
Define Osteoporosis reduction in quantity of bone or atrophy   of skeletal tissue
Define Rheumatoid Arthritis systemic chronic inflammation of   connective tissue.
Detect rotation on AP thumb or fingers   by? should be symmetric concave sides of   phalanges and equal soft tissue.
Detect rotation of AP hand. should be symmetric concavity of sides of   metacarpals and phalanges 2 thru 5.
Detect rotation of Oblique hand true 45degree oblique will have some   overlap of 3rd, 4th, and 5th metacarpal head only.
Detect rotation for lateral hand radius and ulna should be superimposed.   metacarpals should also be superimposed.
Detect rotation AP wrist should be equal concavity of proximal   metacarpals and near equal distance between proximal carpals.
Detect rotation of Lateral wrist true lateral ulnar head will be   superimposed over distal radius 2-5 metacarpals aligned and superimposed.
Detect rotation for AP Forearm should be humeral epicondyles in profile.   radial head, neck, and tuberosity slightly superimposed by ulna.
Detect rotation for Lateral Forearm head of ulna and radius SHOULD be   superimposed and humeral epicondyles should be superimposed.
the wrist joint is also called the radiocarpal joint
ellipsoidal joints move in how many   directions 4
cast conversions fiberglass-^25-30%ma or kV^3-4, sm to   dry- ^mas 50-60% or kV^5-7, heavy or wet- ^mas 100% or kV ^8-10
CR for carpal canal-tangential   inferiorsuperior projection for carpal tunnel syndrome 25-30deg 1 inch distal to base of third   metacarpal

 

The Hand Upper Extremities–Part I

Question Answer
Anatomists divide the bones of the upper limbs, or extremities into   what main groups? Hand, forearm, arm, and shoulder girdle
The hands consists of how many bones? Twenty-seven bones
The bones of the digits (fingers and thumb) which are long bones and   consists of a cylindric body and articular ends are called? Phalanges
The bones of the palms that are cylindric in shape and slightly   concave anteriorly are called? Metacarpals
The bones of the wrist are called? Carpals
How many digits are in the hand? Five
The digits contain a total of how many phalanges? Fourteen
How many metacarpals are in the hand? Five
The metacarpal heads that are visible on the dorsal hand in flexion,   are known as the _______? Knuckles
How many carpal bones are in the wrist? Eight
The carpal bones are fitted closely together and arranged in two   __________ rows. Horizontal
This carpal is the largest bone in the proximal carpal row, has a   tubercle on the anterior and lateral aspect for muscle attachment, also   called the navicular bone? Scaphoid
This carpal bone articulates with the radius proximally and is easy   to recognize because of its crescent shape, known as semilunar. Lunate
The ______ is roughly pyramidal and articulates anteriorly with the   harnate,known as cuneiform or triangular. Triquetrum/triquetral
The ______ is a pea-shaped bone situated anterior to the triquetrum   and is easily palpated. Pisiform
The _____ has a tubercle and groove on the anterior surface, also   known as greater multangular. Trapezium
The tubercles of the trapezium and scaphoid comprise the lateral   margin of the ____ groove. Carpal
The _____ has a smaller surface anteriorly than posteriorly, also   known as lesser multangular. Trapezoid
The _________ articulates with the base of the third metacarpal and   is the largest and most centrally located carpal, also known as os magnum. Capitate
The wedge-shaped ________ exhibits the prominent hook of ________,   which is located on the anterior surface. Hamate
The hamate and the pisiform form the _____ margin of the carpal   groove. Medial
A triangular depression is located on the posterior surface of the   wrist and is visible when the thumb is abducted and extended, and is formed   by the tendons of the two major muscles of the thumb is known as what? Anatomic snuffbox
Tenderness in the snuffbox area is a clinical sign suggesting   fracture of the _____–the most commonly fractured carpal bone. Scaphoid
The anterior or palmar surface of the wrist is concave from side to   side and form the what? Carpal sulcus
A strong fibrous band, attaches medially to the pisiform and hook of   harnate and laterally to the tubercles of the scaphoid and trapezium is   called? Flexor retinaculum
The passageway created between the carpal sulcus and flexor   retinaculum is known as the what? Carpal tunnel
Carpal tunnel syndrome results from ___________ of the median nerve   inside the carpal tunnel. Compression

 

Upper Extremity

Question Answer
Where is the CR directed on all finger   radiographs? PIP
Which projection (not routine) will show   the joint interfaces better? AP
What is the main difference in CR   placement between the thumb vs the finger? MCPJ
Why is there a difference in cr placement   between finger and thumb? No middle phalanx
WHAT ADVANTAGES OR DISADVANTAGES TO DOING   A PA OR AP PROJECTION OF THE THUMB? PA HAS MORE OID BUT IS MORE COMFORTABLE   TO PT. AP HAS LESS OID BUT IS HARDER FOR PT TO ACHIEVE
where is the cr directed for a pa   projection of a hand> 3rd mcp
where is the cr directed for an oblique   projection of the hand? 3rd mcp
where is the cr projection for a lateral   projection of the hand? 2nd mcp
how many degrees is the hand obliqued? 45
what projection does the lateral position   of the hand have? lateral to medial
what are the variations of positioning a   lateral hand? Why are they done? fan lateral, and lateral-medial finger   involvement, fx location mc
how is the pt positioned? seated @ the end of the table
What SID do you use on hand? 40 in sid
what is a bone age film done for adn how   do you do it? bone ossification, lt PA hand
what projection will demonstrate rheudoid   arthritis? How do you do it? Norgaard/Ballcatchers Midpoint between   both hands, Cr 2 3rd MCP
Name all the bones in the wrist scaphoid, lunate, triquetrium, pisiform,   trapezium, trapazoid, capitate, hamate
How do you tell the difference between a   PA projection adn a PA oblique of a wrist? PA oblique- 3-5th MC heads overlap Well   diminstrated trapezoid and distal scaphoid
On a lateral wirst, how is the hand,   thumb, forearm and elbow positioned? Perpendicular to IR, elbow @ 90 degrees
If the radiologist wanted to see the   pisiform in prodile, what projection would show that? AP oblique
Where does the CR go for all wrist   radiographs? midcarpal
to decrease the distance between the   carpal bones and the film on the PA projection, what can be done? Arch hand @ MCPJ
Why does the navicular/scaphoid bone have   a separate routine? Common fx site
What is the routine discussed in class   for scaphoid? Ulnar diviation and stetcher (axial)
What will happen to the scaphoid by   diviating the wrist 45 degrees toward the ulna? Corrects foreshortening, elongates the   scaphoid
Where is the Cr directed on the PA   projection of the scaphoid? perpendicular to scaphoid
What does the term axial mean? How does   it relate to the scaphoid routine? more than 10 degree angle
Why would we angle the CR on the PA axial   projection? How much and which direction? Clear deliniation of scaphoid, 20 degree   caudad (toward elbow)
What do you do with your SID when you   angle the CR? Why? decrease your distance 1 in for every 5   degree, keep oid
radiolgraphically, describe how to tell   the difference betweem the PA projection with 45 degree ulnar diviation and   the PA axial? Axial- scaphoid projected without self   superimposition
What does the term tangential mean? How   does it relate to the Carpal Tunnel routine? Skimming, you want to just skim the   carpals
Describe how to do the inferosuperior   projection of the carpals tunnel? Hyperextend, CR at the radiostyloid   process
Where it the Cr directed on a carpal   tunnel view? which way it it angeled, how much? radiolstyloid, 25-30 degrees, reduce tube   5-6 inches
Describe how to do the superoinferior   projection on a carpal tunnel view? dorsoflex and lean forward
What is the only bone to be see free from   superimposition on carpal tunnel views? pisiform
What is the routine for forearm Ap and Lateral
Where is the Cr directed for a forearm? midpoint to elbow
radiologically, what anatomy must be   included on both forearm projections? ulna and radium, both elbow and wrist   joint
How is the hand positioned for an AP   projection of the wrist? What happens if the hand is not positioned   correctly? Supinate, radius nad ulna will cross
How is the lateral wrist positioning   done? elbow @ 90 degrees, thumb up, epicondyles   perp to IR
When an imaginary line is drawn between   the humeral epicondyles and it is parallel to the film, what projection of   the elbow will you have? AP
Whar is the line that is perp to the   film, and what projection will you have in an elbow? Lat
where does the cr go on an ap projection   of the elbow> Midpoint of the elbow
How many degrees do you rotate for a   lat/med oblique of the elbow? 45
How is acute flexion of the elbow done? Elbow fleced, humerus on IR
Why is the angled lateral (axiolateral)   projection of the elbow done? How is it done? How is the CR angled? Which   direction? Trama view, 45 degree angle toward/away   from
how many exposures must be done to see   the entire circumference of the radial head? 4, PA, Ap, oblique (lat and med)
what are the Fat pads of the arm? Supinator, anterior and posterior
What is the humerus routine? Ap and Lateral
what breathing instructions do you give   the patient? Why? Shallow or suspended breathing, blurr   motion lines, or decrease motion
To get and AP projestion, what must you   do with the humeral epicondyles? Lateral? Ap: parallel to IR, Lat:Perp to IR
Where is the CR directed on a humerus? midhumerus
What anatomic structure will be seen   clearly on the humeral head on the AP projection? Lateral? Ap: greater trochanter, Lat: lesser   trochanter
When would you need to perform a   tranthoracic lateral projection of the humerus? trama
How it a transthoracic donr? film size?   Affected arm? Unaffected arm? Cr? Breathing insturctions? Affected arm against IR, Cr through   surgical neck, midcoronal plane. Unaffected are up out of the way. Affected   arm against the buckie. 14×17 IR
Lateral Forearm evalutaion wrist and distal humerus, superimposed   radius and ulna, elbow flexed 90 degrees
Pa wrist eval carpals, distal rad and ulna, prox. mc.   no rotation, Radial and ulnar joint spaces open. No excessive flexion to   obscure mc or digits.
Pa hand eval: no rotation of hand. = concavity of mc   and phalanges. = amount of soft tissue. =distance between mc heads. open mcp   and ipj. Slight separation w/ soft tissue overlap. All anatomy distal to   radius and ulna
Lat Wrist eval lat projection of mc,c,distal radius and   ulna. Ant/post. displacement of fractures. superimposed distal radius, ulna   and mc
Oblique Hand eval min. overlap of 3rd-4th, 4th-5th mc   shafts. Slight overlap of mc heads and bases. Separation of 2nd and 3rd mc.   Open mcp and ipj. Digits separated w/ no overlap of soft tissue. All anatomy   distal to ulna and radius. Soft tissue and bony trabiculae
Lat hand eval true lat. Superimposition of phalanges,   mc nad distal rad and ulna adn extended digits. Thumb frr of superimposition.   Each bone outlined through superimposed shadows of other mc
Norgaard eval both hands from carpal area to tip of   digits. Mc free of superimposition. Useful level of density over heads of mc
AP elbow eval Rad head, neck and tuberosity slightly   superimposed over prox ulna. Elbow joint centered
Ap oblique (med) elbow coronoid in profile, trochlea . Elongated   med humeral epicondyle. Ulna superimposed by rad head and neck. Olecranon   process in fossa. Soft tissue and bony trabiculae
Ap oblique (lat) elbow rad head, neck, tuberosity projected free   of ulna, capitulum. Open elbow joint. Soft tissue and bony trabiculae
PA digits eval no rotation, concavity of phalangeal   shafts. = amount of soft tissue, open ip and mcpj
Lat elbow eval open elbow joint. Elbow flexed 90   degrees. Superimposed humeral epicondyle. Radial tuberosity facing anterior,   radial head partially superimposing coronoid porcedd. Olecranon in profile.   Bony trabiculae adn soft tissue
Ulnar Deviation Eval no rotation, extreme ulnar deviation,   scaphoid w adjacent articulations
Ap Forearm eval wrist distal to radius slightly   superimposition of rad head, neck adn tuberosity. Pariatlly open elbow. No   elongation or foreshortening. = distance between wrist and elbow
PA oblique aval Carpals on lat wrist, trapezium and   distal scaphoid shown. Distal rad, ulna, carpals and Mc open trapizotrapzoid   and scaphotrapezial joint. Slightly overlap of distal rad. Space between   3rd-4th and 4th-5th mc shafts
AP Thumb eval no rotation, =concavity of phalangea and   MC shafts. Open IP adn MCPJ spaces
PA thumb eval No rotation, =concavity of phalanges adn   mc shafts. Open IP adn MCPJ spaces
Oblique thumb eval Proper rotation of phalanges, soft tissue   and 1st MC. Area from distal tip to trapezium. open Ip adn MCPJ, soft tissue   and bony trabiculae
Ap Humerus eval Elbow and shoulder joint. Max. visability   of epicondyle w/o rotation. Humeral head and greater tunercle inprofile.   outline of lesser tubercle between humeral head and greater tubecle. No great   variation in density of prox and distal humerus
Lat Humerus eval Elbow and shoulder joint superimposed   epicondyles. lesser tubercle in profile. Greater tubercle superimposed over   humeral head. No variation of density between prox and distal humerus
Lat digits eval entire digit true lat. concave ant.   srface of phalanges. No rotation. open ipj, no obstruction of porx phalanx or   mcpj
Lat thumb 1st digit in true lat position. Concave   ant surface of prox phalanx. No rotation. open ip and mcpj. Soft tissue and   bony trabiculae

 

Digits, hand, wrist, forearm, elbow

Question Answer
Name 3 elbow special projections Acute Flexion (Jones), Trauma Axial (Coyle), Radial Head
What should be seen in a Lat Elbow olecranon in profile and superimposition of condyles, open joint   spaces
What does the posterior fat pad demonstrate? elbow joint pathology
What does the supinator fat stripe demonstrate? radial head fx
What should be seen in a lat forearm? ulnar head superimposed over radius
What should be seen in an AP forearm? humeral epicondyles in profile
3 common Fxs of the forearm Monteggia (fx prox 1/3 ulna), Parry/nightstick, Galeazzi (fx distal   1/3 radius)
How would you fx the scaphoid? fall on outstretched hand
What is the joint classification for the radiocarpal joint? ellipsoidal
What is shown in an internal/medial oblique elbow? ICU-Internal shows coronoid and ulna
Where is the CR for Acute Flexion (Jones) of elbow? perp to forearm 2″ proximal to olecranon process
What is a Mason fx? radial head Fx
What are the 3 types of bone in the hand? Phalanges, Metacarpals and Carpals
What are the 3 types of phalanges Proximal, Middle, Distal
What is the joint in the thumb? Interphalangeeal (IP Joint)
What is the joint between the base of the proximal phalanx and the   metacarpal? Metacarpophlangeal Joint (MCP)
What is the joint in between the carpals? Carpmetacarpal (CMC)
What bone does the scaphoid articulate with? Radius
What bone does the lunate articulate with? Radius
What are the two joints between the radius and ulna? Proximal radioulnar and distal radioulnar
Where is the head of the ulna located? Near the wrist
What is the kvp for upper limb? 50-70
What size focal spot should be used? small
What is a Barton’s Fx? dislocation of the posterior lip of the distal radius
What is a Bennett’s Fx? @ base of 1st metacarpal
What is a Boxer’s Fx? @ fifth metacarpal
What is a Colles’ Fx? Fx in distal radius when the fragment is displaced posteriorly
What is a Smith’s Fx? Fx of distal radius where fragment is displaced anteriorly
For the fingers, where is the PA, PA oblique and Lateral centered? PIP
For the thumb, where should the CR be centered for the AP, PA   Oblique and Lateral Projections 1st MCP
Which projection should be used for a Bennett’s Fx? AP Modified Robert’s
How and where is the CR placed for a Modified Robert’s 15degrees towards the wrist at the 1st CMC
Where is the CR for a PA Hand? 3rd MCP joint
Where is the CR for a “fan” hand? 2nd MCP joint
What is the kVp for a lateral hand? 55-65
Where is the CR for a Lateral Extension/Flexion? 2nd to 5th MCP
What is the kVp for Wrist projections? 60+/-6
Where is the CR for a PA/AP wrist? Midcarpal area
What wrist projection is best to show a Barton’s, Colles’ or Smith’s   Fx? Lateral-Lateromedial Projection
Where is the CR for a PA and PA Axial Scaphoid At scaphoid and at 10 degree proximal angle towards elbow
What type of joint is the IP joint? Hinge
What type of joint is the MCP joint? Ellipsoidal
What type of joint is the CMC1 joint? Saddle
What type of joint is the CMC2-5 joint? Gliding
What is the cast conversion for fiberglass? Increase mAs 25-30 and kVp 3-4
What is the cast conversion for dry plaster? Increase mAs 50-60 and kVp 5-7
What is the cast conversion for wet plaster? Increase mAs 100 and kvp 8-10
What is a subluxation? partial dislocation
What is the most common fx of the distal radius and ulna? Torus or Buckle
What type of joint is the “radiocarpal joint”? ellipsodal, diarthrotic
What two bones does the radius articulate with? scaphoid and lunate
What is the other name for the scaphoid? navicular
Which deviation is best to view the scaphoid? ulnar deviation
What carpals are best seen in a PA with radial deviation? hamate, pisiform, triquetrum and lunate
What are the exposure factors for upper limb? i.e. exposure time,   focal spot and kVp short time, 50-70 kVp, small focal spot
How can you tell if film is oblique? ulnar head partially superimposed by distal radius, 3-5th   metacarpals are superimposed
Which projection demonstrates Barton’s, Colles’ and Smith’s   fractures? Lateral-lateromedial wrist
Which projection is best used to view the scaphoid? PA Axial Scaphoid (ulnar deviation)
Which projection is best used to view the ulnar-side carpals? PA Projection (radial deviation)
What is the most fractured carpal? Scaphoid
What is the most common wrist fracture for young children? Torus or Buckle Fx
How should the CR be angled for the PA Axial Scaphoid? 10-15° proximal
2 structures in lateral elbow olecranon process and trochlear notch
Projection instead of AP elbow when elbow is flexed Trauma lateral
IR angle of modified Stetcher 20 degrees
Which position shows a Bennet’s Fx and what is the CR angle? Modified Robert’s and 15 proximal
What are 2 criteria that indicate rotation on PA digits? phalanx shift concavity, soft tissue on sides of phalanges
Elbow fat pads indicate what 3 aspects of lateral? true lateral, elbow 90, optimum exposure
Why does the Stetcher Method use a 20 degree sponge? To elongate scaphoid and make it less painful than deviation
What part of the humeral anatomy separates the tubercles? Intertrabecular Groove
What is the most common elbow fracture in children? Supracondylar Fx (distal humerus above condyles)
What is a Nursemaid Fx? Partial dislocation of radial head cause by pulling
In an AP humerus, what structures are in profile? Greater Tubercle and epicondyles
What is the position for a Lateromedial Humerus Projection? Elbow partially bent, body rotated toward effected part to bring   shoulder and elbow in contact with IR.
Are the epicondyles perp or parallel in a Lateromedial Humerus? They are Perpendicular to the IR
What are the 3 joints that makes the elbow? Proximal radioulnar, humeroulnar, and humeroradial joints

 

Lower Extremities

Question Answer
The pelvic girdle consists of 2 hip bones
The Pelvis consists of both hip bones, sacrum, coccyx
The hip is made up of the ilium, ischium, and pubic bone
What is the area between the greater and lesser   trochanter called on the ANTERIOR aspect of the proximal femur intertrochanteric line
What is the area between the greater and lesser   trochanter called on the POSTERIOR aspect of the proximal femur intertrochanteric crest
A true AP of the hip require how much rotation? 15-20 degree internal rotation
kV for the AP Pelvis, AP Hip, and Lateral Hip is 75-85kV
Center for the AP Pelvis is centered 2″ inferior to level of ASIS (crest   1.5″ below top of IR)
How are you doing? EXCELLENT!
What size IR for a AP Pelvis? 14×17 CW
T/F Lesser trochanters of the femur is included   in the AP Pelvis True
How do you detect rotation for Pelvis?
The superior ramus is part of the pubis
The inferior ramus is part of the Ischium
The Judet method demonstrates the Acetabulum
Center for AP hip (with hardware) 1-2″ distal to neck or femur (all of   hardware must be demonstrated)
Lateral of the hip is also called Frog or Modified Cleaves or Lauenstein method
Trauma Hip most often used is called Danelius-Miller or Cross-table lateral or   Axiolateral (inferiorsuperior)
The modified axiolateral trauma hip when both   hips can’t be moved.is called Clements-Nakayama method
How much should the femur be abducted for the   Cleaves method for the hip? 40-45degrees
How much should the femur be abducted for the   Lauenstein method for the hip? 40-45 degrees (with knee flexed 90degrees)
Where is the CR placed for a unilateral frog-leg   projection mid femoral neck
The AP axial outlet projection for the pelvis   requires the CR to be ______for females and _______ for males 20-35 and males 30-45degrees
The AP inlet projection for the pelvic ring   requires the CR angle to be 40deg caudad
A male pelvis has an ______ angle while a female   pelvis has a ________ less than 90 degrees acute, female greater than   90 degrees obtuse
Three differences in a female and male pelvis are males have narrower , deeper and less flared,   angle of the pubic arch is less than 90deg, shape of the inlet is more   narrower and more oval or heart shape
What are some important positioning landmarks for   the pelvis iliac crest, ASIS, greater trochanter, symphysis   pubis, ischial Tuberosity
The pelvis is separated into ______ superior to   the inlet and ________pelvis is a cavity that is surrounded by bony structures   that is of great importance during birthing process greater false pelvis, lesser true pelvis forms   birthing canal
If the femoral neck is foreshortened and the   lesser trochanters are in profile medially on a radiograph what is probable   cause for positioning external rotation of the leg and foot
When taking a patient history for a hip x-ray it   is important to ask about a prosthesis or any hip surgery for what two   reasons so you can position patient without injuring   site, and to make sure you center lower to include all hardware
What pathology is best demonstrated with the   judet method acetabular fractures
Where is the CR placed for a unilateral frog-leg   projection mid femoral neck
The ankle joint is formed by what three bones tibia, fibula, talus
A 15deg internal rotated AP oblique projection is   called the mortise projection
The mortise position demonstrates the joint and   should have even space over entire _____ talar surface
What does the mortise joint do for the body helps stabilize weight
What is the difference between the AP mortise and   AP oblique ankle projections for positioning internal rotation for mortise is 15-20deg and the   ankle is internal rotation of 45deg
On a true AP of the ankle what is not   demonstrated entire three part joint space of the ankle   mortise
The ankle is what type of joint with what type of   movement synovial joint, sellar or saddle type and   movement is flexion and extension
Which malleolus is longer and is an extension of   the fibula lateral malleolus
What are the stress views of the ankle important shows lack of support, from fractures or tears of   ligaments
Before doing a stress view of the ankle what   should be ruled out make sure there is no fracture
What are the two joints are on the tibia proximal and distal tibiofibular joints
What structures are seen in the AP Ankle? 1/3 of tib/fib, ½ of metatarsals, ankle joint   with the medial and upper portion of the joint open.
Name the 3 Ankle positions (routine) AP, AP oblique with medial rotation, Lateral
Positioning for the AP ankle Center to ankle joint, foot dorsiflexed.
Positioning for the AP mortise with medial   rotation 15-20 degrees medial rotation, centered to ankle.   (demonstrates ankle mortise)
How do you accurately position for the AP w/ medial   rotation? rotate medially until the malleoli are parallel   (equidistant) to the IR. Rotate the whole leg NOT just the ankle or foot.
What is the visual difference between and AP and   AP Mortise? the joint space on the lateral side of the   Mortise will be open. In the AP the Fib is superimposed over part of the   talus.
What is the (rarely used) AP oblique with   45degree medial rotation for? to show tib/fib joint space.
Identify rotation on Lateral ankle talar domes should be superimposed, lateral   malleolus superimposed over posterior half of tibia.
What are Inversion/Eversion view of the Ankle   for? stress views that are used to demonstrate   ligament damage.
What do you do to fit the Tib/Fib on a 14×17? Try it diagnonally, then try increasing the SID   (44-48in)
T/F There should be partial superimposition of   the Tib and Fib at both proximal AND distal ends? TRUE
You are _____? ON FIRE! Someone call 9-1-1!
Describe positioning for the Lateral TIB/FIB Mediolateral, flex knee to 45 degrees, center   midshaft and include both joints. May increase SID.
Identify rotation for the Lateral TIB/FIB Rotation indicated by condyles of femur and ankle   joint. Condyles should be superimposed and the proximal head of FIB   superimposed by TIB, distal FIB superimposed over posterior half of TIB.
Identify rotation for AP TIB/FIB evaluate relationship of the fibula to tibia.   Lat. Rot. – fib shifts toward or under tib, obscuring medial mortise. Med.   Rot – head of fib draws from beneath tib.
Boom Shockalocka!
Name the tarsals of the foot Calcaneus, Cuboid, Cuniforms (1 medial, 2   intermediate, 3 lateral), Navicular, Talus
How many Tarsals are there? Seven 7
The heel bone is called Calcaneus
The Calcaneus is a Tarsal True
Where would you find Sesamoid Bones in the foot? embedded in tendons, near joints, plantar surface
How many bones in the foot? 14 (phalanges), 5 (metatarsals), 7 (tarsals). 26   total bones.
Name the arches of the foot Longitundinal Arch (Lateral and Medial sides of   foot) Transverse arch (across the foot)
Describe the Longitudinal arch of the foot Comprised of lateral and medial, most of the arch   is on the medial side and in the mid aspect of the foot
Describe the Transverse arch of the foot primary located along the plantar surface of the   distal tarsals and TMT joints. Made up mostly of the cuniforms and cuboid   (especially 2nd and 3rd cuniforms).
Dorsiflexion is when the foot is raised cephalad
Plantar Flexion is when the foot is extended away from the body   (pressing the gas pedal)
Inversion (varus) of the foot is when the bottom of the foot is faced medially
Eversion (valgus) of the foot is when the bottom of the foot is faced laterally
Technical factors for the foot 40in SID, 50-70kV, short exp. time, grid if   >10cm
Name the Foot positions AP axial, AP oblique, Lateral
Name the Toes positions AP axial, AP oblique, Lateral
Name the Calcaneus positions Axial and Lateral
CR angle for AP axial Toes 15 degrees cephalic
Centering for AP axial Toes MTP joint
Film size for AP axial Toes 8×10 or 10×12 (depends on projections done and if   AP axial FOOT is done as a projection)
Special projection for sesamoid bones tangential of toes – dorsiflex foot 15-20degrees   from vertical, CR perpendicular to IR and centered tangentially to posterior   of 1st MTP
alternative lateral for the foot lateromedial- outside of the foot, CR   mid-cuneiform base of 3rd MT
special projection for the foot to show   longitudinal arches AP & lateral weight-bearing CR 15deg   posterior to base of MT
Name the Calcaneus projections and centering   point Axial Plantodorsal –dorsiflexed, CR 40deg   cephalic at base of 3rd MT Lateral-Mediolateral- CR 1in inferior to medial   malleolus
what is gout? form of arthritis, uric acid deposits destuct   joint space
Does Lisfranc joint injury requires a decrease or   increase in technique increase to penetrate tarsal region
joint effusions are signs of fracture,dislocation,soft tissue damage
what type of joints are IP joints hinge (flexion and extension)
what type of joints are TMT,intertarsal plane or gliding (limited movement)
what type of joints are MTP ellipsoidal or condyloid, (4 movements)
the calcaneal sulcus and a depression on the   Talus form an opening for ligaments to pass through in the middle of the   subtalar joint called? sinus tarsi
three articular facets appear at the subtalar or   talocalcaneal joint with the Talus through which the weight of the body is   transmitted to the ground in an erect position posterior, anterior and middle articular
what does the sustentaculum do? provides medial support for weight bearing   subtalar or talocalcaneal joint
You are __________ the shiznat!
in what projection is the tuberosity on the 5th   MT demonstrated oblique-medial of the foot
what is a common trauma site for the foot that   provides attachment of a tendon tuberosity of the 5th MT
weight of the body is transmitted by this bone   through the important ankle and talocalcaneal joints TALUS
what type of joint is the ankle synovial-sellar type w/flexion and extension
Longest and strongest bone femur
Four major ligaments for the knee joint posterior cruciate, anterior cruciate, fibular   collateral, tibial collateral
Name three knee positions that are tunnel   projections BeClere, camp Coventry, homblad
Name two tangential knee projections merchant and sunrise
A distinguishing difference between the lateral   and medial condyle is the presence of _____________ adductor tubercle on the posterior side of the   medial condyle that receives the tendon of the adductor muscle
What do all tunnel views demonstrate intercondylar fossa
How do you position a patient for the   camp-coventry method patient supine, flex knee 40-50degrees, CR to   knee joint or popliteal depression, CR perpendicular to tib/fib, 40 SID.
What two tunnel projections are PA holmblad and camp Coventry
What one tunnel view requires the CR to be   perpendicular to the IR Homblad method
The settegast method also called the   inferosuperior projection requires the knees to be flexed __________ deg and   the CR angle __________ to the lower legs 40-45d, 10-15d
The joints at each end of the femur are a   frequent source of pathology when trauma occurs because why The entire weight of the body is transferred   through the femur and associated joints
What do the medial and lateral condyles of the   femur articulate with the tibia
Why must the CR angle for a lateral knee be 5-7   degrees cephalad the medial femoral condyle extends lower than the   lateral femoral condyle when the femoral shaft is vertical
The medial and lateral epicondyles are   attachments for what the medial and lateral collateral ligaments
What is the largest sesmoid bone in the body the patella
When the leg is extended the patella is where superior to the patellar surface
When the leg is flexed the patella is where downward over the patellar surface
Where is the apex of the patella located along the inferior border
Where is the base of the patella located the superior border
Does the patella articulate with the tibia no! only with the femur
Where is the femorotibial joint located between the two condyles of the femur and the   condyles of the tibia
What is the femorotibial joint classified as a synovial joint, bicondylar and diarthrodial   that allows flexion and extension
Where is the patellofemoral joint located where the patella articulates with the anterior   surface of the distal femur
What is the patellofemoral joint classified as synovial , SELLAR (saddle)
What is the largest joint space of the human body cavity of the knee joint
What is the knee joint the knee joint is synovial type enclosed in an   articular capsule or bursa
What are the medial and lateral menisci fibrocartilage disks between the articular facets   of the tibia and the femoral condyles
What projection shows the articular facets in   profile AP knee
Where do you center for an AP knee parallel to the tibial plateau
Why are the femoral condyles superimposed but   never completely because of magnification
What is the same for all tunnels of the knee CR perpendicular to tib/fib and demonstrates   intercondylar fossa
Why is a PA patella preferred over an AP less OID
What is demonstrated on an AP proximal femur lesser trochanter superimposed and the greater   trochanter in profile
What is demonstrated on an AP Distal femur epicondyles parallel to IR
What is demonstrated on a Lateral proximal femur lesser trochanter in profile and the greater   trochanter is superiposed
What is demonstrated on a lateral distal femur condyles are in line with long axis of femur for   no rotation
Beclere method (ap axial) for tunnel knee   requires _____degree knee flexion, CR angle of ____ degrees and the CR   centered _______ 40-45, 40-45 cephalad, ½ inched distal to apex of   patella
Holmblad method (pa axial) for tunnel knee   requires ______degree knee flexion, and the CR angle of ______degrees. 60-70 degree knee flexion and no angle on CR   (perp to IR)
Camp Coventry method (pa axial) for tunnel of   knee requires _____degree knee flexion, and CR angle of ______ degrees. 60-70 degree knee flexion and 40-50 degree caudad   angle on CR
Do you rotate the knee for a true AP? yup, 5 degree internal rotation of anterior knee   will align interepicondylar line parallel to plane of IR.
How much should you flex the knee for a   Lateral-Mediolateral Knee projection? 5-10 degrees additional flexion may cause   separation of a fracture (p.253)
Define Baker Cyst When an excess of knee joint fluid is compressed   by the body weight between the bones of the knee joint, it can become trapped   and separate from the joint to form the fluid-filled sac in the posterior   knee.
The cavity in the hipbone that articulates with   the femoral head is called the acetabulum
The hip bone consists of what three parts? Ischium, Pubic bone, and Ilium
The ilium and sacrum articulates at the _________   joint Iliosacral
The junction of what 2 bones forms the obturator   foramen of the pelvis? Ischium and Pubic bone
Name the bones that make up the pelvic girdle Right and Left Hip bones
Name the bones that make up the pelvis in an   adult Sacrum, Coccyx, Right and Left Hip
The prominent ridge extending between the   tochanters at the base of the neck on the posterior surface of the femur is   the intertrochanteric crest
Name one or more structures that may be helpful   in order to evaluate rotation on an AP pelvis radiograph (not proximal femur) Symetry of the Obturator formina or Ischial   spines, and alignment of the Coccyx and Pubis symphisis.
How much do you medially rotate the feet and   lower limbs to place the femoral necks parallel with the plane of the IR on   an AP projection of the pelvis? 15-20 degrees
What position, projection or method is useful in   diagnosing fractures of the acetabulum? Judet (axiolateral)
What is the projection of the Modified Cleaves   often called? Frog leg
Do you see the lesser trochanter with the   Modified Cleaves method? Yes
What projection/position of the hip best   demonstrates the greater trochanter in profile? AP hip/pelvis
The angulation of the tube for the axiolateral   projection (Danelius-Miller Method) is angled perpendicular to what   structure? (not the film) Femoral Neck (and IR)
Where is the central directed for the unilateral   frog-leg? Femoral Neck
The largest sesamoid bone in the body is the patella
The tube angle for the Camp Coventry method for   the PA axial (knee) is 40 degrees
In order to better visualize the joint space in   the AP projection of the knee on a large patient, the central ray should be   angled how many degrees and in what direction? 3-5 degrees cephalic
In the Be’clere position the patient is placed   (supine, prone, or lateral)? Supine
The centering point for the AP of the knee is 1/2″ distal from apex of Patella
This acts as a shock absorber in the knee Meniscus
In the AP projection of the proximal femur, the   foot should usually be slightly rotated internally ________ degrees. 15-20
Which projection of the patella provides sharper   recorded detail, AP or PA? PA
What is the name of the prominence on the   posterior aspect of the femur that forms the popliteal surface? Linea Aspera
What is the protrusion on the anterior side of   the proximal tibia called where the patellar ligament inserts tibial tuberosity
When looking at a lateral ankle radiograph, how   do you determine if it is rotated the talar domes should be superimposed and there   should be superimposition of the posterior tibia
Is the sustentaculum tali on the medial or   lateral side of the calcaneus medial
The lateral malleolus is part of this bone fibula
The fibula articulates with the condyles of the   femur (T or F?) False
When doing an oblique ankle that is for the   mortice, how much do you rotate the leg and in which direction 15-20 degrees medial rotation
Describe how to position a tib/fib for an AP condyles should be parallel to IR and foot should   be AP
Where is the centering point on an AP projection   of the ankle ankle joint
If an x-ray of the toes are requested, how much   do you angle your tube on the AP axial projection to open the joint spaces 15 degrees
If an x-ray of the foor is requested, how much do   you angle your tube for an AP projection which opens the joint spaces 10 degrees
On an AP oblique projection of the foor, which   oblique and how many degrees obliquity is most often performed 30 degrees medial oblique
When doing an AP oblique projection of the foor which   rotation best demonstrates the sinus tarsi medial rotation
Where is the central ray directed for the lateral   first toe IP
Where is the central ray directed for the AP foot base of the 3rd metatarsal
To obtain an axial projection of the caclcaneus,   the number of the degrees the central tay is angled____ when the long axis of   the foot is perpendicular to the plane of the IR 40 degrees

 

Lower Extremity/WSU

Question Answer
Degree of CR angulation for plantodorsal   Calcaneus (axial)? 40 degrees cephalic
Where does the central ray enter for the axial   calcaneus (plantodorsal)? base of the third metatarsal
What is the degree of tube angulation for the   “coalition method” calcaneus? 45 degrees caudad
The CR should enter where for the coalition   method? Base of the fifth metatarsal
How much CR angulation is used for an AP ankle? None
What is the position of the part for a lateral   ankle? mediolateral
The ankle should be rotated how many degrees   medially for an oblique ankle (medial rotation)? Mortise joint? 45 degrees, 15-20 degrees
An AP tib/fib should show which structures? Ankle and knee joints in profile, moderate   overlap of prox/distal tib fib articulations
Which way is the part rotated for a lateral   tib/fib? mediolateral
A patient with a measurement of less than 19 cm   between the ASIS and tabletop should be shot with what degree of CR   angulation for an AP knee? 3-5 degrees caudad
A patient with a measurement of greater that 24   cm from the ASIS to the tabletop is shot with a _______________ CR angulation. 3-5 degrees cephalad
How is the patient positioned for a PA projection   of the knees? prone, toes resting on the tabletop
What is the degree of CR angulation for a PA   projection of the knee? none
What is the amount of knee flextion used for a lateral   projection of the knee? 20-30 degrees (opening up the joint to the max)
_____________ CR angulation is used for the   lateral projection of the knee. 5-7 degrees cephalad
What is a proper GENERAL technique for a lateral   knee? (performed tabletop) 60 KV @ 6mAs
What is a proper GENERAL technique for an AP   projection of the knee? (performed in the bucky) 60 KV @ 16mAs
____________CR angulation is needed for an AP   oblique projection of the knee. (patient measures 21cm from the ASIS to   tabletop) NO/zero
The camp-coventry method is used to demonstrate   what? intercondylar fossa
The patients knees should be flexed to what   degree for the camp-coventry method? 40-50 degrees
The CR should be angled how many degrees for the   camp-coventry method? 40-50 degrees caudad (depending on the amount of   knee flexation)
The CR should be angled how many degrees for a   merchant method? 30 degrees caudad
What is the amount of knee flextion for the   merchant method projection? 40 degrees
What size cassette should be used for bilateral   merchant knees? 14X17
What is the degree of CR angulation for the   settgast method (tangential patella)? Patient is done prone with knee flexed   ninety degrees none
When should you not perform a settegast   projection of the tangential patella? present of transverse patella fx
What is weight bearing knees done for? Degenerative arthritis
What is the degree of limb rotation for an AP   pelvis? 15-20 degrees internally
CR for an AP pelvis? 2 inches above the pubic symphysis
Technique used for an AP pelvis? 75KV @ 40 mAs
Technique used for a lateral or oblique pelvis? 75-80KV @ 60-80 mAs
What is the patient angulation of the judet view   of the pelvis? 45 degrees, affected side up
What does the judet view of the pelvis   demonstrate? posterior wall of acetabulum and oblique pelvis
CR angulation for an outlet pelvis? 35 cephalic
What does the outlet pelvis demonstrate? elongation of the pubis and ischial rami
CR entrance of the outlet pelvis? 1 inch above symphysis
CR angulation of the inlet pelvis view? 25 degrees caudad
CR entrance for the inlet pelvis? At the level of the ASIS
What does the inlet pelvis demonstrate? pubis and ischial rami almost completely   superimposed
CR entrance for the chassard-lapine view of the   pelvis? centered at the lumbosaral region at the greater   trochanters
Patient positioning for chassard-lapine? Patient seated at edge of table, bent to grab   ankles (butt shot!)
What does the chassard-lapine demonstrate? The relationship of the femoral head to the   acetabulum
What is the modified cleaves method? frog leg lateral
CR entrance for the modified cleaves method? 1 inch above the pubic symphysis bilateral, ASIS   unilateral
What size cassette is used for an AP hip? 10×12
pt position for AP hip? supine, leg flexed 15 degrees internally
Patient position for launstein projection? pt is turned toward affected side (either LPO or   RPO), knees are flexed, the affected femur should lie as flat as possible on   table
Should the launstein projection be used for   trauma cases? No.
The clement-nakayama patient position? Patient is supine with affected side near edge of   table, legs straight.
IR and CR angulation for clement-nakayama? IR angled 15 degrees under patient at level of   ASIS, 15 degrees cephalic (CR)
The clement-nakayama demonstrates what? lateral hip; acetabulum and proximal femur (hip   joint)
Danelius-miller is also known as? cross-table hip
General technique for a danelius-miller hip? 75-80KV @ 60-80 mAs
CR entrance for danelius-miller hip? Through the femoral neck, perpenedicular to the   cassete (which is at the iliac crest)
Patient position for danelius-miller? supine, unaffected leg flexed (out of way of   film), affected leg turned in 15 degrees internally
CR entrance for a PA projection of the anterior   pelvic bones? midsagittal plane of the greater trochanters
CR angulation used for a male for Taylor method   anterior pelvic bones? 20-35 degrees cephalad
CR angulation used for a female for Taylor method   anterior pelvic bones? 30-45 degrees cephalad
CR entrance for Taylor method projection of   anterior pelvic bones? 2 inches distal from the pubis symphysis
What cassette size is used for an AP/lateral   femur? 14×17 (10×12 if additional view needed)
General technique for a femur (including the   hip)? 75 KV @ 40 mAs
General technique for a femur (including the knee   tabletop/bucky)? 60 KV @ 6 mAs/65KV @ 16 mAs
Amount of patient angulation for an AP proximal   femur? 15 degrees internally
Amount of patient angulation for an AP distal   femur? 5 degrees internally
CR entrance for AP proximal femur? level of the greater trochanter
CR entrance for AP distal femur? 1/2 inch below the apex of the patella, cassette   should end 2 inches below knee joint
CR entrance for LATERAL proximal femur? greater trochanters, light should start two inces   above the crest
CR entrance for LATERAL distal femur? light should end two inches below knee joint
General technique for tib/fib (either lateral or   AP)? 65KV @ 5-6 mAs
Cassette size used for a foot? 8×10 or 10×12
General technique used for a foot? 55KV @ 5 mAs
What is the entrance of the ray for an AP foot? dorsoplantar
What is the amount of tube angulation for an AP   foot? 10 degrees cephalad
CR entrance for an AP foot? base of 3rd metatarsal
What does the AP foot projection demonstrate? tarsal/metatarsal joint spaces
Patient angulation for oblique foot? 30 degree medial angulation of entire leg
CR entrance for oblique foot? base of 3rd metatarsal
What does the oblique projection of the foot   demonstrate? interspaces around cuboid and surrounding bones   plus the sinus tarsi
CR entrance for lateral foot? base of the metatarsals
what projection is used for a lateral foot? mediolateral
Standing feet lateral are done bilateral for what   reason? they are done for comparison
CR entrance for standing feet lateral? horizontal and perpendicular to the base of the   5th metatarsal
Standing feet laterl projection is done to see? longitudinal arches
composite-dorsoplantar is one exposure or two? two
CR angulation for 1st projection of the   composite-dorsoplantar? 15 degrees to base of 3rd metatarsal
CR angulation for second projection of the   composite dorsoplantar? 25 degrees to the posterior surface of the ankle
Patient position for first exposure of composite   dorsoplantar? Tube in front of patient, unaffected foot is   behind
Patient position for second exposure of composite   dorsoplantar? Tube is behind patient, unaffected foot is in   front
What does the composite dorsoplantar demonstrate? Composite of entire foot w/o superimposition of   tibia
Kite mehtod demonstrates what? Congential club foot
CR for AP kite method? perpendicular to the tarsals
Patient position for the AP kite method? Patient supine, knees flexed, feet flat on   cassette, hold knees together to be vertical
CR entrance for Holly method sesmoids? perpendicular and tangential to first MPJ
Cassetter size used for sesmoids? 8×10
Patient position for Holly method sesmoids? supine, leg extended and foot is dorsiflexed
General technique for sesmoids? 55KV @ 5 mAs
Lewis method sesmoid projection demostrates what? sesamoids free of superimposition
Patient position for Lewis method sesmoids? prone, foot resting on first digit
The medial oblique projection of the foot best   demostrates what? The cuboid and its related articulations

 

lower limb comp questions – knee to foot

Question Answer
Name the tarsal bones medial, middle and lateral cuneiforms, cuboid,   scaphoid (navicular), calcaneus (os calcis), talus (astralagus)
What are the alternate names for the cuneiform   bones? 1, 2, 3
What is the alternate name for the scaphoid   tarsal? navicular
What is the alternate name for the calcaneus   tarsal? os calcis
What is the alternate name for the talus tarsal? astralagus
What joints make up the ankle mortise? talofibular and tibiotalar
What joints make up the knee? patellofemoral, femorotibial
What is the largest, strongest tarsal? calcaneus
What makes up the ball of the foot? the 5 metatarsal heads
What is the purpose of the longitudinal arch? it acts as a shock absorber
What attaches to the calcaneal tuberosity? calcaneal/Achilles tendon
What purpose does the transverse arch serve? support
At what angles does the talar articular surface   slope? 33-40 degrees
Where does the ligamentum patellae attach? tibial tuberosity
At what age does the patella form? 3-5 years of age
How do the femoral condyles sit in relation to   each other? the medial condyle sits 5-7 degrees more inferior
What ligaments stabilize the knee joint? posterior cruciate, anterior cruciate, tibial   collateral, fibular collateral.
What are the attachment points for the posterior   cruciate ligament? medial condyle, posterior intercondylar area
What are the attachment points for the anterior   cruciate ligament? lateral condyle, anterior intercondylar area
ACL anterior cruciate ligament
PCL posterior cruciate ligament
What are the attachment points for the tibial   collateral ligament? medial femoral condyle, medial tibial condyle
What are the attachment points for the fibular   collateral ligament? lateral femoral condyle, lateral fibular head
How do the malleoli lie in relation to each   other? lateral malleolus lies 15-20 degrees more   posterior
What angle do the tibial plateaus sit at? they slope posteriorly 10-20 degrees
How is the femur normally situated in the body? it slants medially 5-15 degrees
what enters and exits through the popliteal   surface? popliteal nerves and vessels
what type of bones are the tarsals? short
what is the function of a short bone? flexibility of motion
what is found in the medullary cavity of a long   bone? yellow bone marrow
where is red bone marrow found? the ends of a long bone
what lines the inside of the long bone? endosteum
what covers the outside of the bone? periosteum
what is the primary function of a long bone? support
what is found inside a short bone? red marrow
what could be the function of a sesamoid bone? alter the direction of muscle pull

 

lower limb question

Question Answer
Number of bones in the foot 26
The location of the tuberosity that is a common   fracture site of the foot base of the fifth metatarsal
Name the joints of the metatarsals metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP), tarsometatarsal   joint (TMT)
Where are the sesamoid bones located on in the   foot? plantar surface at the head of the first metatarsal
Name the 7 metatarsals with their alternate names Talus (astragulus), Calcaneus (Os Calcis),   Cuboid, Navicular (Scaphoid), lateral, medial and intermediate cuneiforms   (1,2,3)
The most posterior-inferior part of the calcaneus tuberosity
Rounded processes on the calcaneus lateral and medial processes
A ridge of bone on the superior portion of the   calcaneus (visualized laterally on an axial projection) peroneal trochlea or trochlear process
Large prominent bony process on the medial aspect   of the calcaneus sustentaculum tali
Which two bones does the calcaneus articulate? cuboid and talus
The calcaneus articulates with the talus   superiorly to form what joint? subtalar joint or talocalcaneal
The 3 articular facets at the talus joint posterior, anterior and middle articular facets
The opening in the middle of the subtalar joint sinus tarsi or tarsal sinus
The four bones that articulates with the talus tibia, fibula, calcaneus and navicular
Which cuneiform is the smallest? the largest? smallest-intermediate; largest-medial
The 4 bones that the medial cuneiform articulate navicular, first and second metatarsal,   intermediate cuneiform
The 4 bones the the intermediate cuneiform   articulate with navicular, medial and lateral cuneiforms and   second metatarsal
The 6 bones that the lateral cuneiform articulate navicular, second, third, fourth metatarsals,   intermediate cuneiform, cuboid
The 4 bones that the cuboid articulate calcaneus, lateral cuneiform, fourth and fifth   metatarsal
Name the two arches of the foot longitudinal and transverse
The 3 bones of the ankle joint tibia, fibula and talus
The expanded distal end of the fibula extending   down the lateral side of the talus lateral malleolus
The medial elongated process of the distal tibia   and extending alongside the medial talus medial malleolus
the deep, three-sided socket formed by the tibia,   fibula and talus mortise
The expanded process at the distal anterior and   lateral tibia anterior tubercle
Distal tibial joint surface forming the roof of   the ankle mortise joint tibial plafond
joint-type of the ankle synovial; ginglymus-hinge
Joint movements of the ankle flexion and extension (dorsiflexion and plantar   flexion)
The weight-bearing bone of the lower leg tibia
3 parts of the tibia body (shaft), distal extremity, proximal   extremity
Two large processes making up the medial and   lateral aspects of the proximal tibia medial and lateral condyles
The two, small pointed processes on the superior   surface of the tibia intercondylar eminence
The names of the two pointy processes at the   intercondylar eminence lateral and medial tubercles
The two smooth, concave articular facets on the   upper articular surface of the tibia tibial plateau
What does the tibial plateau articulate with? femur
Rough-textured prominence located on the   midanterior surface of the proximal tibia tibial tuberosity
Sharp ridge along the anterior surface of the   tibia anterior crest or border (shin)
Short pyramid process on the distal end of the   tibia medial malleolus
The lateral aspect of the tibia forms a   flattened, triangular shaped structure called… fibular notch
What bones does the fibula articulate? the tibia proximally and the tibia and talus   distally
The head of the fibula is distal or proximal proximal
The extreme proximal end of the fibula that is   pointed is called the… Apex
The 5 parts of the fibula apex, head, neck, body and lateral malleolus
The longest and strongest bone in the entire body femur
The smooth, triangular-shaped, shallow surface at   the distal portion of the anterior femur patellar surface (intercondylar sulucus;   trochlear groove)
What joints make up the ankle mortise? talofibular, tibiotalar
What joints make up the knee? patellofemoral, femorotibial
The notch between the large, rounded condyles on   the distal femur intercondylar fossa
The deep depression between posterior and middle   articular facets of the calcaneus calcaneal sulcus

 

Lower extremity

Question Answer
For AP of the toes, the toes/foot are   ________ to the IR and the CR is at the ____ Joint? PARALLEL and MTP Joint
For AB Oblique of the toes, knees are   flexed, foot on IR with toes INTERNALLY rotated are _______ to the IR with CR   TO ____ joint. 30″ to 45* Oblique = CR to MTP Joint
For the lateral view of the big toe, the   foot should always be in what position LATERAL
Where is the CR Directed for an AP   Dorsoplantar of the foot? CR is angled 10* POSTERIORLY toward the   heel ot BASE of the 3RD Metatarsal
For and AP OBLIQUE of the foot how many   degrees to the IR ? 30*
For the AP OBLQUE of the foot the CR to   the BASE is at? the 3rd Metatarsal
For a lateral view of the foot how should   it be positioned? Mediolateral
For the AXIAL PLANTODORSAL position of   the foot and calcaneus (the heel) be positioned to the IR? Perpendicular to the IR
In the AXEAL PLANTODORSAL position the CR   should be angled how many degrees 40* Cephalad toward the id calcaneus
What does CEPHALD mean? Toward the head
What position should the leg be in a   lateral (mediolateral) position Knee Flexed-Leg rotaded externally until   lateral side of foot is against the IR – Ankle is flexed 90*
For and AP OBLIQUE Mortise how far do you   rotate the ankle? 15* – 20* Oblique
For an AP OBLIQUE how far do you rotate   the ankle 45* bolique to IR
When positioning the lower leg the 14″x17″   is placed how? Diagonally
In the AP of the lower leg the lower leg   and knee should be _______ to the IR? PARALLEL
When positioning the knee in the AP View   the CR angled should be _____ * cephald to 1/2″ distal to apex of   patellaw 5*
For a lateral knee the knee should be   flexed ____* to ____ *, leg should be rotated _____ until femoral condyle and   patella are ____ to IR – 20* TO 30* = Externally = PERPENDICULAR   to IR
For the lateral knee the CR is _____* to   _____* cephald to _____” distal to medial epicondyle 5* to 1* = 1″
How many degrees is the knee flexed for   the TUNNEL VIEW? Prone with Knee Flexed 40-50* to IR
How many degrees for a SUNRISE VIEW? 80*
For the Patella the CR angle is? 15* to 20* Cephald to APEX of the   PatellaAn
What is ASIS? Anterior Superior Illiac Spine
When positioning the femur the 14″ x   17″ should be placed __________ with TOP OF IR at level of _______ for   PROXIMAL VIEWS LONGITUDINALLY – ASIS
When positioning the femur the 14’x17′   should be placed ________ with the BOTTOM of the IR ________ below knee joint   for a distal view Longitudinally – 1″ to 2″
For a LATERAL PROXIMAL VIEW the patien is   turned _______ on side, knees flexed _______ with legs rotated ________ until   lateral? PARTIALLY on side – 30″-45″ –   Rotated EXTERNALLY –
For a LATERAL DISTAL VIEW the patient is   turned on side with ________ leg crossed over affected leg,knee is flexed   ____* with femoral condyles and patella _______ to the IR UNAFFECTED LEG – 30*-45* = PERPENDICULAR
When using the buckey to position the hip   a 10″ x 12″ is placed ____________ with TOP OF IR at level of ASIS Longitudinally
For an AP Positioning of the hip leg is   fully exteneded with foot and leg roated ________ * Internally 15
Name the irregular bones OXCOXAE – SACRUM – COCCYX
The tarsal are what type of bones Short Bones
The phalanges and metatarsals are   classified as what type of bones? Long Bones
The tibia and fibula are classified as   what type of bones Long Bones
The femur is considered what type of a   bone Long Bone
What type of movement does all PHANGEAL   JOINTS provide Hinge Movement
The MTP Joints allow for what type of   movement Hinge Movement
The ANKLE (MORTISE) Joint allows for what   type of movement Hinge Movement
The Patella formoral allows for what type   of movement? Gliding Movement
The hip joint allows for what type of   movement Circumduction
How many bones are there in the foot? 26
How many phalanges (toes) are there in   the foot 14
There are ________ tarsals in the foot 7
The FEMUR extends from the _____ to the   ____ Hip to the Knee
The proximal end of the femur contains   what? The head – neck & greater and lesser   trochanters
The distal end contains the ______ &   _____ with a U-shaped notch. This notch lets what pass through? Medial and the Lateral Condyles = Blood   vessels and nerves
The 1st digit (big toe) contains ____   phalanges 2
What are name of the phalanges found in   the big toe? Proximal and Distal Phalanx
The foot contians 2 _______ bones near   the 1st metatarsal phalangeal joint Sesamoid Bone
What are the 3 bones in the Proximal Row   of the foot Navicualr – Talus – Calcaneous (heel0
What are the 2 bones that make up the   lower leg Tibia and Fibula
On what dise is the Fibula found Lateral Side
The tibia is the larger weight bearing   bone located on the MEDIAL Side True
Where are the TIBIAL SPINES located Anterior Tibia
The tibial tuberosity is a raised area on Anterior Tibia
The distal tibia contains ____________? Medial Maleolus
The proximal end contains the ______ and   _______ process Head and Styloid
The POINTAL INFERIOR border is called   the? APEX
The ROUNDED SUPERIOR border is called the Base
The bones that make up the pelvic girdle   are the? Right and Left OS COXAE (HIPS)
The hip bones is made up of 3 fused bones   ..what are they? Ilium, Ishium and Pubis
The Pelvis includes the _______ and   ______? Pelic Girdle, Sacruml, Coccyx
The ilium has a curved upper portion   called the? Iliac Crest
The ilium has a bondy projection called   the ASIS Anterior Superior Iliac Spine
In each Os Coxae there are 2 large   openings called the ______ _________ which allows for the passage of NERVES   and BLOOD VESSELS to the legs Obturator Foramen
How many IP Joints does the big toe have 1 IP
Digits 2 – 5 have both PIP (Proximal   Interphalangeal) and Distal (DIP) Interphalangeal Joints True
The ankle mortise joint seperates the   Tibia from the Lateral Malleolus FALSE
The Mensicus acts as a ________ helping   to cushion the knee joint. shock absorber
EC – What are the 2 c-shaped disks   between the femoral condyles and the tibial plateaus called Meniscus
EC – The medial and laterial condyles   have a Ushaped notch that seperates them and it is called a ________. Blood   vessels and nerves pass through this notch Inter Condylar Fossa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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