X ray Production Quizzes

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  • Binding energy of tungsten? Molybdenum= 69 keV for tungsten. 20 kEv for molybdenum
  • Brems energy level is determined by? Kinetic energy loss by electrons will vary. The greater change in electron path = greater energy loss = lost electron = photon created
  • Bremsstrahlung x-rays AKA= general x-rays, white x-rays, breaking x-rays
  • Change in filtration has what affect on emission spectrum? Filtration removes low quality. Increased filtration = decreased amplitude = increased quality = decreased quantity = no change in characteristic
  • Change in kVp affects the emission spectrum how?  Increased kVP = increased amplitude = increased quality = increased quantity = increased change in right to left
  • Change in mAs affects emission spectrum how?  Increased mAs = same quality = increased quantity = increased amplitude = no change in right to left
  • Change in rectification in single phase power has what affect on emission spectrum?  Full rectification = same quality = increased quantity = no change in characteristic
  • Change in voltage waveform affects emission spectrum how?  Increased power = increased quality = increased quantity = no effect on characteristic radiation
  • Characteristic photons have ____ energy levels= specific (discrete)
  • Characteristic x-rays AKA= K shell x-rays
  • Combined emission spectrum changes= change in quantity = change in amplitude. Change in quality = change in right to left
  • Does heat cause ionization= No
  • Electron target interaction= electrons (mA) accelerated across tube (kVP). Projectile electron travels from cathode to anode. Transfer of kinetic energy from electrons to target.
  • Formula for KE= KE = 1/2mV squared
  • How are Brem x-rays produced= slowing electrons at the target. Nuclear interaction. Electron gives up some of its KE as x-ray photon
  • How are characteristic x-rays created= by electron interactions at the inner shell of the target atom
  • How are characteristic x-rays produced= by released binding energy
  • How does kinetic energy transfer from electron to target= at target the projectile electron interacts with outer and inner shell electrons and even nucleus.
  • How is the 99% kinetic energy/heat created= excitation of outer shell electrons. It is directly proportional to tube current. Small amount of energy is transfered
  • In Brems x-ray how is strength of KEV determined= proximity to the nucleus
  • Kinetic energy of electrons is expressed= as keV
  • Only x-rays produced at the ____ shell are useful for imaging in characteristic radiation= K shell
  • Photon release by movement of electron in orbital shell= characteristic x-ray
  • Steps for characteristic x-ray production= 1. Projectile electron enters atom at high KE. 2. Projectile electron ionizes atom. 3. “Hole” filled by outer shell or free electron. 4. Energy released = characteristic x-ray photon
  • The discrete portions of characteristic x-ray spectrum change position with change in ____ ____ = target material
  • The useful x-rays from tungsten targets are= K shell
  • What % of EM radiation is characteristic and what is Brems= 10% characteristic. 90% Brems
  • What affects the x-ray emission spectrum= mAs. kVp. Filtration. Target material. Voltage waveform.
  • What are the conditions needed inside x-ray tube= 1. Thermionic emission at filament. 2. Potential difference (gives electrons high speed). 3. Anode electrostatic focusing cup. 4. Stop electrons at anode which converts kinetic energy into electromagnetic radiation
  • What are the x-ray beam characteristics= quality, quantity, intensity
  • What creates x-ray beam intensity= quality and quantity; kvp and mAs
  • What has continuous x-ray spectrum= Brems
  • What is binding energy of tungsten K shell= 69.5 keV
  • What is keV range of Brems x-ray= 0 to 90 keV
  • What is the function of the x-ray machine= produce x-rays
  • What is the only thing that changes characteristic radiation= change in target material
  • What is the x-ray emission spectrum= graph that plots the output of the tube
  • What percent of interactions at anode are heat and what are EM radiation= 99% heat of KE. 1% EM radiation of KE
  • What types of interactions with anode= characteristic where electrons interact with orbital electrons. Brems where electrons interact with nucleus

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    Rationale and Objectives

    To compare the image quality between conventional and synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in breast ultrasound (US).

    Materials and Methods

    Twenty-four patients with 31 breast lesions were included in our study. The US data were processed with SA algorithm. For quantitative analysis, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were calculated. For qualitative analysis, conventional and SA images were reviewed by three radiologists and diagnostic preference (conspicuity, margin sharpness, and contrast) was assessed. The radiologists also determined whether artifacts were present. Parameters were analyzed using a paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and chi-square test.


    The mean CNRs were higher in SA images compared with conventional images (mean, 2.56 versus 2.28, P = .004). The mean SNRs were higher in SA images compared with conventional images (31.62 versus 25.26, P < .0001). SA images were considered as being “better” or “much better” in 16–23 (51.6–74.2%) lesions of total 31 lesions for conspicuity, in 17–24 (45.2%–77.4%) for margin sharpness, and in 13–23 (41.9%–74.2%) for contrast. Significant preferences in SA images were demonstrated (conspicuity, P < .05 for all radiologists; margin sharpness and contrast in two radiologists). Refraction and speckle artifacts were less frequently observed in SA images (refraction, P < .05 for all radiologists; speckle, P < .05 for two radiologists), whereas reflection artifacts were more frequent in SA images (P < .05 in two radiologists).


    SA imaging provides better image quality than conventional imaging in patients with focal breast lesions in breast US.

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