Posted on June 28, 2012
Phototimer; An electronic device in radiography that measures the radiation that has passed through the patient and terminates the x-ray exposure when it is sufficient to form an image.
This entry was posted in Imaging Equipment.
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MRI Detects Early Signs of Autism in Infants
By Marijke Vroomen Durning, RN | June 28, 2012
MR images show significant differences in the early brain development of high-risk infants who go on to develop autism, according to a study published in the June issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry.
Researchers evaluated 92 children who were at high risk for developing autism, because they had older siblings with the disorder. At age six months, the children underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Additional imaging data was obtained from most of the children at 12 months and/or 24 months old. Behavioral assessments were also performed at 24 months. Twenty-eight of the 92 children met the criteria for autisms spectrum disorders at 24 months.
Upon examination of white matter tract development of the infants, 12 of the 15 tracts differed significantly in the children who went on to develop autism compared with those who did not. The differences between fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter organization based on movement of water through tissue, was greatest at six and 24 months.
“Infancy is a time when the brain is being organized and connections are developing rapidly,” said Dr. Alan Evans, of the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, part of McGill University, which is the Data Coordinating Center for the study.
“Our international research team was able to detect differences in the wiring by six months of age in those children who went on to develop autism. The difference between high-risk infants that developed autism and those that did not was specifically in the white matter tract development – fiber pathways that connect brain regions.”
Although the children who developed autism had higher FA values early in the study, by 24 months, these children had lower FA values than the study subjects who did not develop autism.
ACR updates Appropriateness Criteria
The American College of Radiology (ACR) has released new and updated evidence-based guidelines to help healthcare providers choose the most appropriate medical imaging exam or radiation therapy for a patient’s clinical condition via the latest version of its Appropriateness Criteria.
The ACR updated 39 appropriateness criteria topics and added five new criteria—breast cancer screening, radiologic management of gastric varices, imaging of mesenteric ischemia, definitive therapy for early-stage cervical cancer and radiation therapy for small-cell lung cancer. The criteria have been shown to improve quality, reduce unnecessary exams and lower costs, according to the ACR.
ACR Appropriateness Criteria seeks to provide a tool for more effective clinical decision making, to help ensure that imaging is neither over nor underutilized. The criteria are a national standard developed by expert panels of physicians from different medical specialties.
The criteria include topics from more than 350 expert panelists in breast, cardiac, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, neurologic, thoracic, urologic, pediatric, vascular and women’s imaging, as well as interventional radiology and radiation oncology. There are 180 topics with more than 850 variants available.
“ACR Appropriateness Criteria can help providers identify when they can replace an exam that uses ionizing radiation with one that does not, or even when no imaging exam may be needed at all. This can reduce patient and population exposure to radiation, and ensure appropriate imaging, without disrupting the doctor-patient relationship or delaying needed care,” E. Kent Yucel, MD, chair of the ACR committee on diagnostic imaging and interventional radiology appropriateness criteria, said in a release.
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