-Fractures are the most common skeletal abnormality seen in general radiology.
– A fracture usually appears as a radiolucent line crossing the bone and disrupting the cortical margins.
– Fractures in which bone fragments overlap produce a radiopaque line.
There are two major causes of fractures in the skeletal system: 1. Traumatic 2. Pathological
In all cases of trauma, it is essential to produce two x-rays of the injured part 90 degrees from each other to determine displacement or fracture continuity.
•A closed fracture , also called simple fracture, is a broken bone that does not penetrate the skin.
•An open fracture, also called a compound fracture, is an injury where a broken bone is open through the skin. When a broken bone penetrates the skin there is a need for more immediate treatment, and an operation is often required to clean the area of the fracture.
• Open fractures usually take longer to heal because of the extent of injury to the bone and the surrounding soft-tissues. Open fractures also have a high rate of complications including infection and non-union.
Classifications (Types) Of Fractures
Fractures are classified by their : direction, position, # of fracture lines and the integrity of the overlying skin. Complete fractures involve the entire cross section of the bone resulting in the discontinuity of two or more fragments. Incomplete fractures are fractures that crack the bone, but the fracture does not completely traverse the width of the affected bone.
Classifications of fractures
•Longitudinal fracture one extending along the length of the bone.
•Linear fracture, a fracture that extends parallel to the long axis of a bone but does not displace the bone tissue. Sometimes called a hairline fracture.